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Medical Dictionary

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An alphabetical listing of General terms and items.

 
R   Dico Tools
Resistance. See also: Impedance


RA   Dico Tools
See rheumatoid arthritis.


Radiation   Dico Tools
Latin radiatus = radiant; hence, divergence from a common centre (cf. radius).


Radiation Therapy   Dico Tools
The use of x-rays at very high doses to treat or control disease.


RADIATION THERAPY (RADIOTHERAPY)   Dico Tools
The use of radiation to treat disease (especially cancer).


Radicle   Dico Tools
Diminutive of Latin radix = root; hence a small root, adjective - radicular.


RADIOGRAPHY   Dico Tools
The use of X-ray pictures, for example for diagnosis.


Radiography/radiograph/radiogram/radiologic   Dico Tools
Radiography (or roentgenography) is the method of taking a picture with the help of X-rays, and the terms radiograph or simply X-ray are sometimes used for the resulting picture. Radiogram is the correct name for an image taken by radiography.


RADIOLOGIST   Dico Tools
A physician who uses x-rays or other imaging procedures for diagnosis and treatment.


Radius   Dico Tools
Latin = spoke of a wheel, which rotates around the hub; hence, the lateral bone of the forearm, which rotates (though around an almost vertical axis); adjective - radial.


Radix   Dico Tools
Latin = root.


Ramify   Dico Tools
Latin ramus = a branch; and facere = to make; hence, to branch.


Ramus   Dico Tools
Latin = branch; hence, a branch of a nerve.


RANDOMIZED TRIAL   Dico Tools
A clinical trial arranged to produce a chance distribution of participants into different arms (e.g., experimental treatment, standard treatment, or placebo). Randomization is done to minimize bias.


Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Mult   Dico Tools
A clinical trial in which patients have been randomly assigned to receive either the study drug or the alternative treatment under study. Neither the patient nor the doctor conducting the study knows which treatment is being given; the alternative to the study drug is a placebo; and the study is conducted at several centers.


Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Mult   Dico Tools
A clinical trial in which patients have been randomly assigned to receive either the study drug or the alternative treatment under study. Neither the patient nor the doctor conducting the study knows which treatment is being given; the alternative to the study drug is a placebo; and the study is conducted at several centers.


Range Of Motion   Dico Tools
The extent to which a joint is able to go through all of its normal movements. Range-ofmotion exercises help increase or maintain flexibility and movement in muscles, tendons, ligaments, and joints.


Raphe   Dico Tools
Greek a seam; hence, the line of junction of the edges of 2 muscles or areas of skin.


RAPID VIROLOGICAL RESPONSE (RVR)   Dico Tools
The probability of achieving a sustained virological response early in treatment based on a decline in HCV RNA (viral load). The generally accepted timeframe is 4 weeks after starting treatment.


RAST (radioallergosorbent Test)   Dico Tools
A blood test used for identifying allergens (see Allergies).


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Raw Data   Dico Tools
The BCM


RAYNAUD'S PHENOMENON   Dico Tools
Temporary interruption of blood flow to the extremities (fingers, toes, tip of nose and ears), often associated with exposure to cold temperatures.


RBC   Dico Tools
Red blood cell. See erythrocyte.


REACTIVATION   Dico Tools
The return of a previously latent (inactive) infection to an active, pathogenic state.


Reactive Arthritis   Dico Tools
Arthritis resulting from infection elsewhere in the body; i.e. there is no infection in the joint. The most common type is HLA B27-related and may follow certain types of bowel or genitourinary infection.


REACTIVE ARTHRITIS (REITER'S SYNDROME)   Dico Tools
An arthritic disorder, often linked to conjunctivitis, that appears to be associated with viral infections.


REBETOL   Dico Tools
Schering’s brand of ribavirin. see ribavirin.


REBETRON   Dico Tools
A bundled kit for HCV treatment that packages together Intron-A brand interferon and ribavirin.


REBOUND   Dico Tools
An increase in viral load following a previous decrease.


RECEPTOR   Dico Tools
A specific binding site on a cell's surface or in its interior. When chemical messengers or drugs bind to receptors, various cellular functions are activated or inhibited. Viruses must bind receptors in order to enter cells.


Recess   Dico Tools
Latin recessus = a secluded area or pocket; hence, a small cavity set apart from a main cavity.


RECOMBINANT   Dico Tools
Produced by genetic engineering.


RECONSTITUTION   Dico Tools
Mixing a substance (e.g., Peg-Intron brand pegylated interferon) with water to return it to a usable form.


Rectum   Dico Tools
Adjective, Latin rectus = straight. (The rectum was named in animals where it is straight - which it is not in Man).


Rectus   Dico Tools
Latin rectus = straight.


RECURRENT   Dico Tools
Returning or occurring repeatedly.


RED BLOOD CELL   Dico Tools
See erythrocyte.


Reference Range   Dico Tools
The reference ranges have been compiled on basis of a population of 1000 healthy persons and are separated for gender.


Reflex   Dico Tools
An involuntary response - muscular or secretory - to a stimulus mediated by the central nervous system.


REFLEXOLOGY   Dico Tools
An alternative healing technique that involves putting pressure on various zones of the body.


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REFRACTORY   Dico Tools
Resistant to treatment.


REGENERATION   Dico Tools
Regrowth.


REGIMEN   Dico Tools
A specific treatment protocol, including what drugs are taken and at what dosages.


REIKI   Dico Tools
A healing technique in which energy is channeled through the hands of the healer.


REITER'S SYNDROME   Dico Tools
See reactive arthritis.


RELAPSE   Dico Tools
Recurrence of disease symptoms following a period of improvement. In HCV, relapse can refer to an increase in viral load after it has been suppressed.


Remodeling   Dico Tools
The body's mechanism for systematically removing old bone tissue and replacing it with new bone to preserve the strength of the skeleton (see Osteoporosis).


RENAL   Dico Tools
Having to do with the kidneys.


Renal Artery Stenosis   Dico Tools
Narrowing of an artery that supplies blood to the kidney (see Hypertension).


Renin   Dico Tools
An enzyme released by the kidney that stimulates production of angiotensin (see Hypertension).


REPLICATION   Dico Tools
Multiplication or reproduction, specifically used when referring to a virus.


RESECTION   Dico Tools
See hepatic resection.


RESERVOIR   Dico Tools
A permanent host or carrier from which infection is spread.


RESISTANCE   Dico Tools
The mutation of a microorganism in such a way that it loses its sensitivity to a drug; a resistant organism can function and replicate despite the drug's presence.


Resistant Hypertension   Dico Tools
Blood pressure that remains persistently elevated despite drug therapy and lifestyle changes (see Hypertension).


RESOLVE   Dico Tools
When referring to a condition, to clear up or heal.


Resorption   Dico Tools
The removal of bone tissue — both protein and minerals — by osteoclasts (see Osteoporosis).


RESPONDER-RELAPSER   Dico Tools
A person who initially responds well to a treatment, but then experiences a relapse. In chronic HCV infection, this refers to a person who initially has a positive response to treatment (e.g., normal ALT, undetectable HCV RNA), but does not sustain this response once treatment is stopped.


RESPONSE TO TREATMENT   Dico Tools
See treatment response.


Restenosis   Dico Tools
Renarrowing of a blood vessel that has been widened (with or without stents) during angioplasty (see Cardiovascular Health).


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Resting Energy Expenditure   Dico Tools
The rate at which you burn calories while at rest. Resting energy expenditure accounts for 60–75% of daily energy expenditure (See Weight Management).


Rete   Dico Tools
Latin = a net; hence, a network of veins or tubules.


Reticular   Dico Tools
Adjective, Latin reticulum = small net; hence having a network.


Reticulum   Dico Tools
Diminutive of Latin rete = net; adjective - reticular.


Retina   Dico Tools
Derivation uncertain - the innermost of the 3 layers of the eyeball.


Retinaculum   Dico Tools
Latin = a tether; hence, a thickened band of deep fascia which retains tendons or the patella.


RETINOPATHY   Dico Tools
Disease of the retina of the eye.


Retract   Dico Tools
Latin re = back, and tractum = pulled; hence, to pull something back, and retraction - the act of retracting.


Retro   Dico Tools
Prefix - Latin = backwards.


Retroflexion   Dico Tools
Latin retro = backwards, and flexion = bent; hence, the position of being bent backwards, applied to the angulation of the body of the uterus on the cervix.


RETROSPECTIVE STUDY   Dico Tools
A study based on medical records, looking backward in time at events that happened in the past. Contrast with prospective study.


Retroversion   Dico Tools
Latin retro = backwards, and version = turned; hence, the position of being turned backwards, applied to the angulation of the cervix uteri on the vagina.


RETROVIRUS   Dico Tools
A class of viruses that have their genetic material in the form of RNA and use the reverse transcriptase enzyme to transcribe their RNA into DNA within the host cell.


Rheumatic Disease   Dico Tools
Any one of over 100 disorders that cause inflammation in connective tissues (see Arthritis).


Rheumatic Fever   Dico Tools
A form of reactive arthritis triggered by streptococcal sore throat. Its features include very painful joint inflammation (arthritis). It is now uncommon in developed countries but still occurs commonly in other parts of the world. It can cause inflammation and scarring of heart valvos (rheumatic heart disease).


Rheumatism   Dico Tools
Pain and stiffness of soft tissues in and around joints (see Arthritis).


Rheumatoid Arthritis   Dico Tools
A chronic systemic disease that causes inflammatory changes in the synovium, or joint lining, that result in pain, stiffness, swelling, and ultimately loss of function and deformities of the affected joints due to destruction of the cartilage and adjacent bone. The disease can also affect other parts of the body. In the past it was also called chronic polyarthritis. It is more common in women than men, and at least 70% of patients show a positive blood test for rheumatoid factor.


RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS (RA)   Dico Tools
An autoimmune condition characterized by joint inflammation and destruction of connective tissue; other organs, including the heart, lungs, kidneys, and skin, may also be affected.


RHEUMATOID FACTOR   Dico Tools
A type of antibody (IgM) that reacts to abnormal IgG antibodies produced by people with autoimmune conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis.


Rheumatologist   Dico Tools
A doctor (board-certified internist or pediatrician) who has had specialized training in diagnosing and treating disorders that affect the joints, muscles, tendons, ligaments, connective tissue, and bones.


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RHEUMATOLOGY   Dico Tools
The study and treatment of conditions of the joints, muscles, bones, and connective tissues.


Rhinencephalon   Dico Tools
Greek rhinion = nostril, and enkephalos = brain; hence, the part of the brain concerned with smell (relatively large in lower animals).


RHIZOID   Dico Tools
A root like structure. Used in the identification of some Zygomycetes.


Rhombencephalon   Dico Tools
Greek rhombos = rhomboid, and enkephalos = brain; hence, the hind-brain - the medulla oblongata, pons and cerebellum, which enclose the rhomboid fossa (the floor of the 4th ventricle).


Rhomboid   Dico Tools
Greek rhombus = a figure with 4 equal sides, not at right angles, and eidos = shape or form, hence, the shape of a rhombus.


RIBA   Dico Tools
A type of antibody test; RIBA is often used to confirm HCV antibody positivity detected on an ELISA II test.


RIBASPHERE   Dico Tools
Medmark Specialty Solutions’ brand of generic ribavirin. see ribavirin.


RIBAVIRIN (brand Name REBETOL, COPEGUS, RIBASPHERE   Dico Tools
An antiviral medication approved for use in combination with interferon to treat chronic HCV infection.


RIBAVIRIN (brand Name REBETOL, COPEGUS, RIBASPHERE   Dico Tools
An antiviral medication approved for use in combination with interferon to treat chronic HCV infection.


RIBONUCLEIC ACID (RNA)   Dico Tools
A single-stranded nucleic acid that encodes genetic information. RNA is made up of sequences of four building blocks


RIBOSOME   Dico Tools
Small organelles in the cell where new proteins are built from the RNA "blueprint."


RIBOZYME   Dico Tools
An RNA molecule that cleaves (cuts) RNA strands at a specific site. A ribozyme directed against a specific region of the HCV genome is currently under study as a treatment for HCV.


Right Lymphatic Duct   Dico Tools
The lymphatic duct that carries lymph, from the right watershed and returns the to the venous circulation through the right subclavian vein.


Rima   Dico Tools
Latin = chink; hence, e.g., rima palpebrarum = the chink between the free edges of the eyelids.


RIMANTADINE (brand Name FLUMADINE)   Dico Tools
A drug used to treat influenza that is also under study as a treatment for chronic hepatitis C.


RISK/BENEFIT RATIO   Dico Tools
A measurement used to evaluate whether potential benefits outweigh potential risks (e.g., in a clinical trial).


Risorius   Dico Tools
Latin risor = scoffer; hence, muscle risorius is the facial muscle which expresses laughter by drawing the corner of the mouth laterally.


RNA   Dico Tools
See ribonucleic acid.


Roentgenography   Dico Tools
See radiography.


ROFERON-A   Dico Tools
Brand name of interferon-alpha-2a, produced by Roche Laboratories.


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Rostral   Dico Tools
Adjective, Latin rostrum = beak, implying nearness to the corpus callosum.


Rostrum   Dico Tools
Latin beak, which decorated the Roman orator's platform; hence, a platform or beak-like structure; adjective - rostral.


Rotate   Dico Tools
Latin rota = wheel; hence, to turn, and rotation, the act of turning.


Rotundum   Dico Tools
Latin rotnudus = round.


Rubro   Dico Tools
Prefix, Latin rubrum = red.


Ruga   Dico Tools
Latin = a wrinkle.


Rugose   Dico Tools
Adjective, Latin ruga = a wrinkle, hence, wrinkled.


RX   Dico Tools
Treatment



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