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Medical Dictionary

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An alphabetical listing of General terms and items.

 
G-CSF   Dico Tools
See granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.


Galea   Dico Tools
Latin = helmet, hence, galea aponeurotica - the aponeurosis of occipitofrontalis muscle.


GALL BLADDER   Dico Tools
An organ beneath the liver where bile is stored.


Galli   Dico Tools
Genetive (possessive case) of Latin = cock, hence, crista galli, the cock's comb.


Gallus   Dico Tools
Latin = cock, hence, crista galli, the cock's comb.


Gamma   Dico Tools
The 3rd letter of the Greek alphabet, typically used in a naming sequence - alpha, beta, gamma, delta, etc.


GAMMA GLOBULIN   Dico Tools
A preparation of antibodies injected to prevent or treat infection. Gamma globulin is used as postexposure prevention for hepatitis A and hepatitis B.


Gamma-aminobutyric Acid (GABA)   Dico Tools
Chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. As an inhibitory neurotransmitter, it instructs the next neuron not to fire. May help quell anxiety (see Anxiety, Depression).


GAMMA-GLUTAMYL TRANSPEPTIDASE (GGT)   Dico Tools
A liver enzyme. Elevated GGT levels may indicate bile obstruction and liver damage. A normal GGT level is 30-60 IU/L.


GAN CAO   Dico Tools
See licorice root.


Ganglion   Dico Tools
Greek = swelling, referring to a peripheral collection of nerve cells, adjective - ganglionic.


Gastric   Dico Tools
Greek gaster = belly or stomach.


Gastric Surgery   Dico Tools
See bariatric surgery (See Weight Management).


Gastric Ulcer   Dico Tools
An ulcer on the inner lining of the stomach.


Gastritis   Dico Tools
Inflammation of the stomach (see Digestive Health).


Gastro   Dico Tools
Greek gaster = belly or stomach.


Gastrocnemius   Dico Tools
Greek gaster = belly, and kneme = leg, hence, the bulging muscle of the calf.


GASTROENTERITIS   Dico Tools
Inflammation of the stomach and intestines.


GASTROENTEROLOGY (also GASTROENTEROLOGIST)   Dico Tools
The medical specialty that deals with the digestive system; a gastroenterologist treats digestive diseases.


GASTROINTESTINAL   Dico Tools
Having to do with the digestive system, especially the stomach and intestines.


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GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT   Dico Tools
The digestive tube consisting of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and anus.


GB VIRUS C (GBV-C)   Dico Tools
See hepatitis G virus.


Gelatinosa   Dico Tools
Latin gelatus = frozen.


Gemellus   Dico Tools
Latin diminutive of geminus = twin.


Gene   Dico Tools
Part of the DNA molecule responsible for making proteins. It is the basic unit ofhereditYi all information in the genes (genetic information) is passed from parent to child.


GENE (adjective GENETIC)   Dico Tools
The basic unit of heredity. Genes contain hereditary information encoded in the form of DNA (or RNA in some viruses). In animal and plant cells, genes are located on the chromosome in a cell's nucleus.


GENE THERAPY   Dico Tools
An approach to preventing or treating disease by replacing, removing, or introducing genes, or otherwise manipulating genetic material.


GENERIC DRUG   Dico Tools
A drug that is not protected by a patent and may be produced by any manufacturer.


GENERIC NAME   Dico Tools
A common name used to identify a drug, as opposed to a brand name used by a particular company for marketing (e.g., pegylated interferon is the generic name of the drug marketed under the brand names Peg-Intron and Pegasys).


Genetic Counseling   Dico Tools
Informing people about genetic facts that may guide them in making a decision based on a knowledge of disease risk. The word genetic refers to any characteristic that is inherited.


GENETIC ENGINEERING   Dico Tools
Manipulation of an organism's genetic material to modify the proteins it produces.


Genetic Marker   Dico Tools
A gene that is used to identify an individual disease or trait, or trace its inheritance within a family.


GENETIC MATERIAL   Dico Tools
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), the molecules that carry hereditary information.


Genial   Dico Tools
Adjective, Greek geneion = chin.


Geniculate   Dico Tools
Latin geniculare = to flex the knee, hence, a bent knee.


Geniculum   Dico Tools
Latin geniculare = to flex the knee, hence, a bent knee.


Genital   Dico Tools
Adjective, Latin genitalis = reproductive, hence, genitalia, the sexual organs.


Genitourinary Tract   Dico Tools
The genitalia, the bladder, and the urethral tube through which the bladder empties.


GENOME   Dico Tools
The complete genetic code or "blueprint" of an organism.


GENOTYPE   Dico Tools
The genetic makeup of an organism. HCV has six major genotypes (designated by the numbers 1 through 6). In the U.S., genotype 1a/b is most prevalent, and also more difficult to treat. See also quasispecies.


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Genu   Dico Tools
Latin = knee.


GEOPHILIC   Dico Tools
Soil-seeking, having a soil reservoir.


GERM TUBE   Dico Tools
Initial hypha from a sprouting conidia, spore or yeast.


Gestational Diabetes Mellitus   Dico Tools
A form of diabetes that has its onset during pregnancy, usually in the last trimester (see Diabetes).


GI   Dico Tools
See gastrointestinal.


Gingiva   Dico Tools
Latin = gum (of tooth).


Girdle   Dico Tools
A ring of bones which may be complete or incomplete.


Glabella   Dico Tools
Diminutive of Latin glaber = bald, hence a smooth bony prominence between the eyebrows.


GLABROUS   Dico Tools
Smooth.


Gladiolus   Dico Tools
Diminutive of Latin gladius = a sword, hence, hance a small sword, term applied to the body of the sternum.


Gland   Dico Tools
Latin glans = an acorn, adjective - glandular; a secreting organ.


Glandula   Dico Tools
Diminutive of Latin glans = acorn.


Glans   Dico Tools
Latin = acorn.


Glaucoma   Dico Tools
A disorder characterized by excessive fluid pressure within the eyeball; can occur as a complication of diabetes (see Diabetes).


Glenoid   Dico Tools
Adjective, Greek glene = socket, and eidos = shape or form.


Glia   Dico Tools
Greek = glue, hence, an adhesive connective tissue.


GLOBULIN   Dico Tools
See immunoglobulin.


Globus   Dico Tools
Latin = a globe.


GLOMERULONEPHRITIS   Dico Tools
An inflammatory disorder of the glomeruli, often due to the build-up of cryoglobulins.


Glomerulus   Dico Tools
Latin glomerare = to roll up, from glomus = a ball of thread (cf. conglomeration).


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GLOMERULUS (plural GLOMERULI)   Dico Tools
A small capillary bed in the kidney where blood filtration takes place.


Glossal   Dico Tools
Adjective, Greek glossa = tongue.


Glottic   Dico Tools
Adjective, Greek = larynx.


Glottis   Dico Tools
Greek = larynx, hence, the boundaries of rima glottidis.


Glucagon   Dico Tools
A hormone produced by the alpha cells of the pancreas that increases the concentration of glucose in the blood (see Diabetes).


Glucocorticoids   Dico Tools
A class of hormones produced by the adrenal gland and simulated by medications such as prednisone. These medications can contribute to osteoporosis (see Osteoporosis).


GLUCONEOGENESIS   Dico Tools
The conversion of glycogen to glucose in the liver.


Glucose   Dico Tools
The body's main source of energy; a six-carbon sugar that comes mainly from the digestion of carbohydrates (see Diabetes, Weight Management).


GLUCOSE (BLOOD SUGAR)   Dico Tools
A form of sugar that is the body's primary fuel. The liver stores glucose after meals and releases it again as needed. Abnormally low or high levels of glucose in the blood may indicate a metabolic disturbance (e.g., diabetes).


GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE (G6PD)   Dico Tools
A human red blood cell enzyme. G6PD deficiency can cause severe anemia.


GLUCOSIDASE INHIBITORS   Dico Tools
Inhibitors of endoplasmic reticulum (ER), a-glucosidase has been shown to inhibit viral replication and secretion.


Glutamate   Dico Tools
A neurotransmitter that may play a role in mood disorders and schizophrenia (see Depression).


GLUTATHIONE   Dico Tools
A natural antioxidant found in the body.


Gluteal   Dico Tools
Adjective, Greek gloutos = rump or buttock.


Gluteus   Dico Tools
Greek gluteos = rump or buttock. One of 3 muscles of the buttock, adjective - gluteal.


Glycemic Index   Dico Tools
A scale for evaluating foods, based on the rate at which sugar is absorbed into the bloodstream after eating a specific food (See Weight Management).


GLYCINE   Dico Tools
An amino acid; one of the building blocks of glutathione.


GLYCOGEN   Dico Tools
A carbohydrate stored in body tissues. The liver converts glucose from food into glycogen and stores it for later use. When needed, the liver converts glycogen back into glucose.


Glycosylated Hemoglobin Test   Dico Tools
A blood test that reflects average blood sugar levels over the preceding two to three months by measuring the amount of glucose adhering to hemoglobin, a protein in red blood cells. The product formed by the attachment of glucose to hemoglobin is known as HbA1c (see Diabetes).


GLYCYRRHIZIN   Dico Tools
See licorice root.


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GLYCYRRHIZIN, GAN CAO)   Dico Tools
An herbal remedy traditionally used to treat diseases of the liver and bronchial conditions. Glycyrrhizin is an active component of licorice root.


GM-CSF   Dico Tools
See granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor.


GMS   Dico Tools
Gomori methenamine-silver. An excellent stain for visualizing fungi. The cell wall stains black and the background is green. Advantage: stains all fungi. Disadvantage: the tissue reaction is not visible.


Gonad   Dico Tools
Greek = reproduction, hence a gland producing gametes - ovary or testis, adjective - gonadal.


Gout   Dico Tools
Arthritis caused by urate crystals (see Arthritis).


Gracile   Dico Tools
Adjective, Latin gracilis = slender.


Gracilis   Dico Tools
Adjective, Latin = slender.


GRAFT   Dico Tools
A transplanted organ or tissue.


Granulation   Dico Tools
Diminutive of Latin granum = a grain.


GRANULOCYTE   Dico Tools
A type of immune system white blood cell (e.g., neutrophil, basophil, eosinophil) that releases toxic chemicals to kill invading microorganisms and mediate allergic reactions.


GRANULOCYTE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR (G-CSF)   Dico Tools
A cytokine that stimulates the production of granulocytes. Genetically engineered G-CSF (filgrastim; brand name Neupogen) is used to treat neutropenia.


GRANULOCYTE MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR (   Dico Tools
A cytokine that stimulates growth of granulocytes and macrophages, two types of white blood cell. Genetically engineered GM-CSF (sargramostim; brand names Leukine, Prokine) is used to treat neutropenia.


GRANULOCYTE MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR (   Dico Tools
A cytokine that stimulates growth of granulocytes and macrophages, two types of white blood cell. Genetically engineered GM-CSF (sargramostim; brand names Leukine, Prokine) is used to treat neutropenia.


GRANULOCYTOPENIA   Dico Tools
An abnormally low number of granulocytes in the circulating blood, which may lead to an increased risk of bacterial infection. In practice, the term is used to refer to neutropenia.


Gravid   Dico Tools
Adjective, Latin gravida = pregnant.


Griseum   Dico Tools
Adjective, Latin griseus = bluish or pearly grey.


Gubernaculum   Dico Tools
Latin something which governs or directs, like a rudder (cf. gubernatorial).


Gustatory   Dico Tools
Adjective, Latin gustatio = taste, hence, pertaining to the sense of taste.


Gut   Dico Tools
A word in common use to describe the large and small intestine (see bowel, large intestine, small intestine).


Gyrus   Dico Tools
Greek gyros = circle, hence a coil of brain cortex.


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