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An alphabetical listing of General terms and items.
A type of lymphocyte (white blood cell). B cells, together with T cells, are the "big guns" of the immune system response to an invasion by a foreign molecule (see Allergies).
Antibody-producing white blood cells, which mature in the bone marrow. The letter B originally came from bursa of Fabricius where B lymphocytes originate in chickens, but has subsequently been extended to imply the bone marrow.
A type of immune system white blood cell. B-cells mature into plasma cells that produce antibodies.
Bachelor of Arts
A simple single-celled microorganism. Bacteria are classified by their shape (e.g., rod, spirochete), staining properties (Gram positive or Gram negative) and habitat (aerobic, anaerobic).
X-ray appearance of spine in advanced AS because of spinal fusion producing a bamboo-like appearance
One of several stomach operations that cause therapeutic weight loss. Also called gastric surgery (See Weight Management).
The junction of a bud and the mother cell of a yeast.
An initial or known value (e.g., ALT level, HCV viral load) against which later measurements can be compared.
Adjective, Latin basis = base.
Adjective, Greek basilikos = royal (king-sized).
Technologist in Blood Banking by the American Society for Clinical Pathology Board of Registry
BCM (Body Cell Mass) represents the cellular, metabolically active body mass. Not included is the extracellular fluid in the metabolically active tissue.
Bachelor of Dental Science
See branched-chain DNA assay.
Bachelor of Dental Surgery
A written, self-report questionnaire used to gauge clinical depression.
A disease that presents as ulcerations in the eyes, mouth and genitals but can affect any organ of the body.
A mild, non-lethal illness, especially a non-cancerous tumor. Contrast with malignant.
A noncancerous enlargement of the prostate that can interfere with urination (see Urinary Incontinence).
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Medications that work by attaching to benzodiazepine-GABA receptors, helping to maintain levels of the neurotransmitter GABA in the brain (see Anxiety).
Drugs thought to remove excess protein and fluid from a limb affected with lymphedema. This drug therapy is used in Europe; however, its effectiveness is still in question. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not approved the use of these drugs.
Medications used to treat a variety of illnesses, including heart disease, high blood pressure, and migraine headaches. They function in exactly the opposite way from beta-2 agonists. They can worsen asthma control and cause asthma flare-ups (see Asthma).
Cells that make and secrete insulin; located in the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas (see Diabetes).
Members of one family of bronchodilator medicines. Beta-2 agonist drugs share a similar chemical structure and a common mechanism of action. They are all related to adrenaline (epinephrine) (see Asthma).
Bachelor of Health Science
Bachelor of Hygiene
In a clinical trial, a false association that results from to the failure to account for some skewing or influencing factor.
Latin bis = double, and caput = head, hence 2-headed, adjective - bicipital.
Taken twice daily.
Adjective, Latin bis = double, and findo = to split.
Latin bis = double, and furco = fork, hence to divide into two.
Affecting both sides of the body.
A yellowish-green fluid produced by the liver that aids in the digestion of fats and the excretion of toxins.
The passage that carries bile from the liver to the small intestine.
A yellowish pigment released when red blood cells are broken down. Normally bilirubin is processed and excreted by the liver. An excess level of bilirubin in the blood (hyperbilirubinemia) may indicate liver damage, and can lead to jaundice (yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes), pale-colored stools, and dark urine. A normal bilirubin level is below 1.3mg.
A protein synthesized by the liver that binds to and transports substances such as vitamins, minerals, hormones, and fats.
The degree to which a drug or other substance is absorbed and circulated in the body.
A favorable response to treatment as indicated by normalization of blood values (e.g., liver enzyme levels).
Also known as bioimpedance and BIA.
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A technique in which people learn to use signals from their own bodies to influence physiological functions.
Natural pigments found in fruits and vegetables that increase absorption of vitamin C.
Is a non-invasive method of determining the composition of body tissues to evaluate the presence of body fluids such as lymph; Also known as known as bioelectrical impedance analysis or BIA.
Drugs which are also called biologicals for short, and include anti-TNF drugs infliximab (Remicade) and etanercept (Enbrel).
See biochemical response.
Fluctuations that occur naturally over time in the levels of a substance such as cholesterol in a person's body (see High Cholesterol).
Removal of a small tissue specimen for examination.
A procedure in which a sample of cells or tissue is taken for laboratory examination. Liver biopsies are used to monitor liver disease progression in people with HCV.
Adjective, Latin bis = double, and pinna = feather, hence converging from 2 sides.
BIS (Bioimpedance spectroscopy) is a technology that measures body impedance in a frequency range between 5kHz and 1MHz. Using a physiological model, the impedance values are used to determine body composition.
Drugs used to treat osteoporosis because they inhibit bone resorption.
The junction of the bladder and the urethra (see Urinary Incontinence).
A method of conducting clinical trials in which participants do not know who is taking an experimental treatment, a standard (control) treatment, or a placebo. In a blinded study, the volunteers do not know what treatment (if any) they are receiving. In a double-blind study, neither the volunteers nor the researchers administering the treatment know who is receiving what. Blinding is done to reduce bias in drug trials. In the case of medical necessity, a study may be unblinded to reveal who is receiving what treatment.
The infusion of blood or blood components into an individual for the treatment of a medical condition. Transfusions may be homologous (from a donor) or autologous (previously stored blood from the recipient).
A pathogen that is transmitted through direct blood-to-blood contact, for example, through sharing dirty needles or through a blood transfusion.
Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
Bachelor of Medicine (designation of doctor in some areas)
Bachelor of Medical Biology
Bachelor of Medical Science
The BMI (Body Mass Index) represents body weight in relation to body surface area (kg/m2).
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Bachelor of Microbiology
Bachelor of Medical Technology
Bachelor of Nursing
Bachelor of Osteopathy
The main part.
A number that indicates body weight adjusted for height that may be further modified for age; BMI.
A measurement of body fat determined by dividing a person's weight (in kilograms) by height (in meters squared).
Healing techniques (e.g., massage therapy, reflexology) that involve manipulating or applying pressure to the body.
The soft, spongy material inside certain long bones where blood cells are produced.
The total amount of bone tissue in the body (see Osteoporosis).
The amount of mineralized bone tissue in a given area, usually calculated in grams per square centimeter (see Osteoporosis).
A word commonly used for the small and large intestines (see gut, large intestine, small intestine).
Diastolic blood pressure
Bachelor of Pharmacy
Blood pressure before treatment
Systolic blood pressure
Bachelor of Public Health
Bachelor of Public Health Nursing
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Latin brachium = arm, and Greek kephale = head, hence a blood vessel related to the upper limb and head.
Latin = arm, adjective - brachial.
Mild mental confusion, memory loss, and/or lack of concentration and alertness. May be a symptom of toxic chemical build-up due to impaired liver function. See hepatic encephalopathy.
A variety of technologies, such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), functional MRI (fMRI), and positron emission tomography (PET), used to examine the structure or function of different regions of the brain (see Anxiety, Depression).
An test that measures the amount of virus (viral load) in plasma or tissues using a chemical signal emitted by viral genetic material.
Greek = gills, adjective - branchial.
The brand name (trademark) of a drug is coined by the manufacturer in agreement with the regulating agencies, unlike the generic name which indicates its active ingredients. For example, celecoxib is the generic name for the drug whose brand name is Celebrex. The brand name starts with a capital letter but the generic name does not. Several brand name drugs can have the same generic name if they contain the same active ingredient. Thus, Motrin and Aleve are both brand names for the generic drug ibuprofen.
The return of detectable viral load or high ALT levels in a person who had previously achieved a good virological or biochemical treatment response.
From a Greek word implying moist, referring to the site of the anterior fontanelle (q.v.), a little fountain, the site of junction of the coronal and sagittal sutures, where the brain can be felt pulsating in infancy.
Latin = short - cf. brief.
The system of branching tubes that carries air through the lungs to the tiny air sacs of the lungs. There, oxygen can be passed into the blood and carbon dioxide released to the air (see Asthma).
Diminutive of bronchus, hence a small bronchus (bronchi have cartilage in their walls, bronchioles have no cartilage).
A type of medication that acts to open the breathing passages primarily by relaxing the muscles surrounding the bronchial tubes (see Asthma).
Derivation unhelpful - a branch of the trachea, adjective - bronchial.
Bachelor of Science
Bachelor of Science in Nursing
Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy
Bachelor of Science in Medicine
Bachelor of Social Work or Bachelor of Science in Social Work Most states require social workers to pass a licensing exam
Adjective, Latin bucca = cheek.
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Latin = trumpeter - hence the muscle which blows air out from the cheek under pressure.
A type of asexual reproduction commonly found in yeasts.
The emergence of newly produced virus particles through a host cell membrane.
Latin = bulb or onion.
Latin = bubble.
A test that measures the amount of a certain waste product (nitrogen) excreted by the kidneys.
An herb traditionally used in Chinese medicine to treat liver conditions.
A fluid-filled sac found between tissue planes over bony places subject to shearing forces, as over the elbow and knee. It is lined by synovium that secretes the lubricating fluid.
An inflammation of a bursa.
Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine and Science
Bachelor of Veterinary Science
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