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Medical Dictionary

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An alphabetical listing of General terms and items.

 
T Cell   Dico Tools
A type of lymphocyte (white blood cell). Helper T cells play a prominent roll in the allergic response (see Allergies).


T Cell (or T Lymphocyte)   Dico Tools
T stands for the thymus, where T lymphocytes mature. T cells are white blood cells that playa critical role in immune response, but, unlike B lymphocytes, do not produce antibodies (immunoglobulins). There are two main subtypes


T'AI CHI   Dico Tools
A traditional Chinese exercise that promotes the health flow of qi.


T-CELL (T-LYMPHOCYTE)   Dico Tools
A type of immune system white blood cell.


T-SUPPRESSOR CELL   Dico Tools
A type of T-cell that helps to regulate and control immune system activity.


TACE   Dico Tools
See transcatheter arterial chemoembolization.


Taenia   Dico Tools
Latin = a tape or ribbon.


Tai Chi   Dico Tools
A traditional Chinese mind-body relaxation exercise consisting of 108 intricate exercise sequences performed in a slow relaxed manner over a 30 minute period.


Talus   Dico Tools
Latin = ankle-bone; hence, the tortoise-shaped tarsal of the talocrural (ankle) joint.


Tapetum   Dico Tools
Latin = a carpet or coverlet; hence the roof of the posterior horn of the lateral ventricle.


Tarsus   Dico Tools
Greek tarsos = a flat surface; hence the flat part of the foot, and later, the bones of the foot behind the metatarsals, adjective, tarsal.


TAURINE   Dico Tools
An amino acid synthesized by the liver that is necessary for many bodily functions.


TBW   Dico Tools
Total Body Water. TBW has been validated using the dilution method (Deuterium).


Tectorial   Dico Tools
Adjective, Latin tectorium = an overlying surface like plaster, a covering or roof.


Tectum   Dico Tools
Latin = roof; hence the roof of the midbrain.


Tegmen   Dico Tools
Latin = covering (cf. integument = the skin).


Tegmentum   Dico Tools
Latin = covering.


Tela   Dico Tools
Latin = a web; e.g., a fold of pia mater containing a choroid plexus.


TELAPREVIR (VX-950)   Dico Tools
An HCV protease inhibitor under development by Vertex to treat hepatitis C.


TELBIVUDINE (Brand Name TYZEKA)   Dico Tools
A nucleoside analogue medicine used to treat chronic hepatitis B produced by Idenix. Telbivudine is not recommended as first line of HBV treatment because of the high rate of drug resistance.


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Telencephalon   Dico Tools
Greek telos = end, and enkephalos = brain; hence the rostral part of the developing brain. (With the diencephalon, it makes up the prosencephalon).


TELEOMORPH   Dico Tools
The sexual state of a fungus.


Temporal   Dico Tools
Latin tempus = time; hence, the temporal area of the scalp, where grey hair first appears, marking the progress of ageing.


Temporo-mandibular Joint (TMJ)   Dico Tools
The jaw joint.


Tendinitis (tendonitis)   Dico Tools
Inflammation of a tendon.


Tendon   Dico Tools
A tough cord or band of fibrous tissue by which muscles are attached to bone.


Tendonitis   Dico Tools
Inflammation of a tendon, usually caused by injury, which may restrict movement of the muscle attached to the tendon (see Arthritis).


Tenia   Dico Tools
Latin = a tape or ribbon.


TENOFOVIR (Brand Name VIREAD)   Dico Tools
A nucleoside analogue medicine used to treat chronic hepatitis B and HIV produced by Gilead Sciences. Tenofovir has a low drug resistance profile so it is recommended as a first line of treatment.


TENS (transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation)   Dico Tools
A type of therapy used to relieve pain that involves passing electricity to nerve cells through electrodes placed on the skin.


Tensor   Dico Tools
Latin tensus = stretched; hence a muscle which produces tension.


Tentorium   Dico Tools
Latin = tent; tentorium cerebelli.


TERATOGENICITY   Dico Tools
Causing birth defects or malformation of the fetus.


Teres   Dico Tools
Latin = rounded, cylindrical.


TERMINAL   Dico Tools
Formed at the end of a structure.


Testicle   Dico Tools
Latin testiculus = the male gonad (see testis).


Testis   Dico Tools
Latin testiculus = the male gonad. From Latin testis = a witness. Under Roman law, no man could bear witness (testify) unless he possessed both testes. Plural - testes.


TESTOSTERONE   Dico Tools
The primary male sex hormone or a synthetic analog. Testosterone stimulates the development of male secondary sex characteristics and the production of sperm.


Tetralogy   Dico Tools
Greek tetra = four, and logos = discourse, hence a combination of four elements e.g., symptoms or defects.


Tetrology   Dico Tools
Greek tetra = four, and logos = discourse, hence a combination of four elements or symptoms.


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Thalamus   Dico Tools
Greek = bedroom - derivation obscure, though the posterior end of the thalamus is rounded and named pulvinar = cushion.


Theca   Dico Tools
Greek theka = a capsule, sheath.


Thenar   Dico Tools
Greek = palm of hand; hence, the ball of the thumb.


Thermogenesis   Dico Tools
The production of heat by cells in the body. Heat helps burn calories (See Weight Management).


THERMOTOLERANT   Dico Tools
Ability to grow at high temperatures (usually above 42 C).


THIOCTIC ACID   Dico Tools
See alpha lipoic acid.


THISYLIN   Dico Tools
An active component of milk thistle.


Thoracic Duct   Dico Tools
The lymphatic duct that carries lymph, from the left watershed upward and returns the to the venous circulation through the left subclavian vein.


Thorax   Dico Tools
Greek = the chest, adjective, thoracic.


THROMBOCYTE (PLATELET)   Dico Tools
A type of blood cell responsible for normal blood clotting.


THROMBOCYTOPENIA   Dico Tools
An abnormally low number of platelets, which may result in abnormal bleeding and easy bruising.


THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA   Dico Tools
A condition caused by a lack of platelets. Small blood vessels under the skin bleed, resulting in purplish discolorations.


Thrombolytic Agents   Dico Tools
Agents or medications that dissolve blood clots and restore blood flow through a blocked artery; used to treat heart attack and stroke. Also called "clot busters" (see Cardiovascular Health).


THROMBOPOIETIN (TPO)   Dico Tools
A cytokine that stimulates the production of platelets.


THROMBOSIS   Dico Tools
Development of blood clots within blood vessels or the heart.


Thrombus   Dico Tools
Greek = a clot.


THYMIC FACTOR   Dico Tools
A hormone produced by the thymus gland or a synthetic substance that has a similar effect. Thymic factors help promote immune system activity, and are under study as a treatment for HCV. Factors include thymosin, thymopentin, and thymopoietin.


THYMOPENTIN   Dico Tools
See thymic factor.


THYMOPOIETIN   Dico Tools
See thymic factor.


THYMOSIN-ALPHA (ZADAXIN)   Dico Tools
A thymic factor under study as a treatment for chronic HCV.


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Thymus   Dico Tools
Greek = sweetbread.


THYMUS GLAND   Dico Tools
A gland in the chest that plays an important role in immune system function; the gland is active in children, but less so in adults.


Thyroid   Dico Tools
Greek thyreos = shield, and eidos = shape or form; hence, shaped like a shield (which shields the glottis).


THYROID GLAND   Dico Tools
An organ at base of the neck that produces thyroxin and other hormones involved in regulating metabolism.


THYROIDITIS   Dico Tools
Inflammation of the thyroid gland.


Tibia   Dico Tools
Latin = the shin-bone, adjective, tibial.


TID   Dico Tools
Taken three times daily.


TINEA   Dico Tools
Literally "moth". A clinical term meaning "ringworm".


TINNITUS   Dico Tools
Ringing or buzzing in the ears.


Tissue Fluid   Dico Tools
Plasma that has left the capillaries and flowed into the spaces between the cells of the tissues; also known as intercellular fluid or interstitial fluid.


TMA   Dico Tools
See transcripton mediated amplification.


TNF (tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha)   Dico Tools
A cytokine (messenger protein) that plays a key role in the body's immune response by promoting inflammation, controlling the production of other pro-inflammatory molecules, and also helping the cells heal or repair themselves. It attaches to a cell surface protein called TNF receptor to exert its effect on the cell.


TOCOPHERAL   Dico Tools
See vitamin E.


TOLERABILITY   Dico Tools
The degree to which a drug or other agent produces adverse side effects.


Tonsil   Dico Tools
Latin tonsilla = tonsil (e.g., palatine tonsil).


TOPICAL   Dico Tools
A medication applied to the skin surface.


Torus   Dico Tools
Latin = a bulge.


TOXICITY (adjective TOXIC)   Dico Tools
The quality of being poisonous or harmful; often used to refer to drug side effects.


TOXIN   Dico Tools
A harmful or poisonous agent.


Trabecula   Dico Tools
Diminutive of Latin trabs = a beam; hence the supporting fibres of a structure.


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Trabecular Bone   Dico Tools
Bone tissue arranged in a meshwork of thin plates or beams that is commonly found at the center of long bones and that composes a large part of the hip and vertebrae. Also called cancellous bone or spongy bone (see Osteoporosis).


TRACE ELEMENT   Dico Tools
A substance needed in very small amounts for the proper functioning of the body.


Trachea   Dico Tools
Greek tracheia = rough, referring to its corrugations.


Tract   Dico Tools
Latin tractus = an elongated strand of wool or dough; hence a pathway for nerve fibres.


TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE (TCM)   Dico Tools
An ancient Asian system of healing that focuses on achieving internal balance. TCM practitioners use methods such as acupuncture, moxibustion, herbal formulas, and exercises such as t'ai chi and qigong to restore the flow of qi (vital energy) within the body.


Tragus   Dico Tools
Latin = goat, because of the beard-like tuft of hair on its internal aspect.


Trans Fats   Dico Tools
Fatty acids (such as those found in solid margarine) that have been reshaped by hydrogenation; also called trans fatty acids (see High Cholesterol).


TRANSAMINASE   Dico Tools
See aminotransferase.


TRANSCATHETER ARTERIAL CHEMOEMBOLIZATION (TACE)   Dico Tools
A treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma that involves the injection of chemotherapeutic drugs into the tumor's blood supply.


TRANSCRIPTION (verb TRANSCRIBE)   Dico Tools
The process of copying genetic material.


TRANSCRIPTON MEDIATED AMPLIFICATION (TMA)   Dico Tools
A recently developed, highly sensitive viral load test.


TRANSFUSION   Dico Tools
The transfer of blood or blood components from one individual to another (or back to the donor, in the case of autologous transfusion).


TRANSIENT   Dico Tools
Short-lived; not permanent.


TRANSJUGULAR LIVER BIOPSY   Dico Tools
A type of liver biopsy in which a sample is taken through the jugular vein in the neck.


TRANSMISSION   Dico Tools
Spread of a pathogenic organism from one person to another.


TRANSPLANT   Dico Tools
Surgical transfer of an organ from one person to another.


Transverse   Dico Tools
Perpendicular to the long axis.


Trapezium   Dico Tools
Greek trapezion = a trapezium - a quadrilateral with 2 sides parallel.


Trapezius   Dico Tools
Greek trapezion = a trapezium - a quadrilateral with 2 sides parallel; hence, trapezius muscle, the diamond-shape of both trapezii muscles together.


Trapezoid   Dico Tools
Greek trapezion = a trapezium - a quadrilateral with 2 sides parallel, and eidos = shape or form, hence resembling a trapezium.


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TREATMENT RESPONSE   Dico Tools
A favorable outcome from therapy. Several different measures are used to describe HCV treatment response, including biochemical response, histological response, end-of-treatment response, and sustained virological response.


TREATMENT-EXPERIENCED   Dico Tools
A person who has had prior treatment for a particular condition.


TREATMENT-NAIVE   Dico Tools
A person who has not had prior treatment for a particular condition.


TRIAL   Dico Tools
See clinical trial.


Triceps   Dico Tools
Latin tres = 3, and caput = head; hence a 3-headed muscle.


Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCAs)   Dico Tools
A class of drugs that is thought to work by increasing the availability of norepinephrine and serotonin to nerve cell receptors (see Depression).


Trigeminal   Dico Tools
Latin trigeminus = triplets; hence, cranial nerve V, with 3 large divisions.


Trigger   Dico Tools
Anything that can set off asthma symptoms (see Asthma).


TRIGLYCERIDE   Dico Tools
An organic compound made up of a fatty acid plus glycerol.


Trigone   Dico Tools
Latin trigonum = a triangle.


Triquetral   Dico Tools
Latin triquetrus = 3-cornered.


Triticea   Dico Tools
Latin triticum = a grain of wheat; hence, the tiny cartilage in the lateral thyrohyoid ligament.


Trochanter   Dico Tools
Greek = a runner; hence, the bony landmark, the greater trochanter, which moves so obviously in running.


Trochlea   Dico Tools
Greek trochilia = a pulley.


TROUGH LEVEL   Dico Tools
The lowest level of a drug reached between doses. Contrast with peak level.


Truncal Lymphedema   Dico Tools
The pain and/or swelling of the breast, chest, back and underarm area due to the buildup of lymphatic fluid.


Truncus   Dico Tools
Latin = trunk (of a tree).


TSH   Dico Tools
Thyroid stimulating hormone.


Tuber   Dico Tools
Latin tuber = a swelling or lump.


Tubercle   Dico Tools
Latin diminutive of tuber, a small prominence, usually bony.


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TUBERCULATE   Dico Tools
Spines or finger-like projections on macroconidia, characteristic of Histoplasma capsulatum.


Tuberculum   Dico Tools
Latin diminutive of tuber, a small prominence, usually bony.


Tuberosity   Dico Tools
Latin tuber = a swelling or lump, usually large and rough.


TUMOR   Dico Tools
An abnormal growth of cells. Tumors may be malignant (cancerous) or benign (harmless).


Tunica   Dico Tools
Latin = shirt; hence a covering.


Turbinate   Dico Tools
Latin turbo = a child's (spinning) top; hence shaped like a top. Old term for nasal conchi.


TWINRIX   Dico Tools
Brand name of a combination hepatitis A/hepatitis B vaccine.


TX   Dico Tools
Treatment, transplant.


Tympanum   Dico Tools
Latin = a drum.


TYPE 1 DIABETES   Dico Tools
See diabetes mellitus.


TYPE 2 DIABETES   Dico Tools
See diabetes mellitus.



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