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An alphabetical listing of General terms and items.
A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used to relieve pain and reduce fever. Advil, Aleve, and Motrin are common brand names.
The ICW (Intracellular water) represents the total volume of intracellularwater. ICW is calculated by BCM
A term used to describe a disease or condition of unknown cause or origin.
See injection drug user.
Immunoglobulin. see antibody.
The major part of the small intestine (see small intestine).
Latin the bone of the flank, adjective - iliac.
Major bony component of the pelvis. There is one on each side, joined to the sacrum via the right and left sacroiliac joints.
Adjective, Latin = lowest, hence artery thyroidea ima.
A phase of chronic HBV that is marked by increased levels of ALT and HBV DNA (viral load). During this phase there is more damage occurring in the liver.
An illness characterized by prolonged fatigue, neurological problems, joint and muscle pain, and/or impairment of the ability to function normally for six months or longer.
The activity of the immune system, for example against an outside invader (e.g., bacteria, virus), cancerous cells, or the body's own tissues (autoimmune response).
The body's defense system that protects against foreign invaders (e.g., bacteria, viruses). Some immune defenses are nonspecific (e.g., phagocytosis), while others are directed against specific invaders (e.g., antibody production). Organs of the immune system include the lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, and tonsils.
A phase of chronic HBV when HBV DNA levels are high, but ALT levels are low. This indicates that there is little liver damage occurring.
Resistance to disease; the body's ability to recognize and defend against outside invaders and cancerous cells. Immunity may be either natural or acquired (for example, artificially induced through a vaccine).
The process by which a person is protected against illness caused by a pathogen (e.g., bacteria, virus). Active immunization (vaccination) involves exposing a person to antigens to prompt the body to mount an immune response (e.g., production of antibodies). Passive immunization involves the injection of an antibody preparation (e.g., gamma globulin).
Capable of mounting an immune response.
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Inability of the immune system to work properly, resulting in increased susceptibility to disease.
A serologic test to determine the presence of antibody by double diffusion precipitation in auger.
The antibody responsible for the majority of allergic reactions. Triggered by allergens, IgE on the surface of mast cells fires up the explosive release of histamine (see Allergies, Asthma).
An agent that influences the body's immune response.
A drug or other agent that decreases immune system function.
A long-term program of desensitization that induces tolerance to an identified allergen. This treatment is commonly used for allergic rhinitis, asthma, allergies to stinging insects, and conjunctivitis (see Allergies).
A therapy that attempts to modify or enhance the immune response or reconstitute a damaged immune system.
A condition diagnosed with a fasting glucose test; blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not yet diabetic (see Diabetes).
A condition similar to impaired fasting glucose (see previous entry), but diagnosed with an oral glucose tolerance test (see Diabetes).
In the context of health experience, an impairment is any loss or abnormality of psychological, physiological or anatomical structure or function (WHO, 1980).
Latin = unpaired.
See inosine monophosphate dehyrogenase inhibitor.
The raw data of a bioimpedance measurement is usually presented in the impedance plane. The x-axis represents the resistance and the y-axis usually denotes the reactance.
Latin for "in place." As part of the term "ductal carcinoma in situ," it means that cancer cells exist and are still contained within the ducts of the milk-producing gland (see Breast Cancer).
In the uterus; refers to events that occur in the womb before birth.
Latin for "in glass"; refers to studies done in a test tube or culture medium in the laboratory.
Latin for "in a living organism"; refers to studies done using human or animal subjects.
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A phase of chronic HBV that is marked by low HBV DNA, and ALT levels indicating less damage occurring in the liver.
The rate of occurrence of some event, such as the number of individuals who get a disease divided by a total given population, per unit of time (usually per year). In contrast to prevalence, incidence describes the number of new cases of a disease among a certain group of people for a certain period of time, i.e. how often a new case is diagnosed.
The number of new cases of a disease or condition in a specific population during a given period of time. The incidence rate is determined by dividing the number of new cases by the total population. Contrast with prevalence.
Latin incisum = cut up.
Latin = notch.
Conditions that a person must meet in order to be eligible for a clinical trial. Contrast with exclusion criteria.
The period of time between initial exposure to an infectious microorganism and the development of disease symptoms.
Latin = anvil, hence the anvil-shaped ossicle of the middle ear.
Latin = a pointer, hence, the fore-finger.
Genitive of Latin index = a pointer, hence, of the fore-finger.
The initiation phase of a particular treatment. Typically induction therapy uses higher or more frequent doses of a drug. Contrast with maintenance therapy.
Latin = tunic.
A condition in which the body is invaded by an infectious organism (e.g., bacteria, virus, fungus).
A disease or condition that can be transmitted from one person to another.
See hepatitis A.
Brand name of interferon alfacon 1 consensus interferon, produced by Amgen/Valeant Pharmaceuticals.
Adjective, Latin = lower down, hence, farther from the head end.
A cancer that has spread from its site of origin into surrounding tissue (see Breast Cancer).
The body's response to tissue injury or infection, typically characterized by redness, swelling, heat, and pain.
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A chronic (long-lasting) inflammatory disease of the gut, e.g. ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease.
A mechanism designed to protect subjects in clinical trials. Before entering a trial, participants must sign a form stating that they have been given and understand important information about the trial (including possible risks and benefits) and voluntarily agree to take part.
Latin = below.
Latin = funnel.
Direct injection (e.g., of a drug, nutrients) into the bloodstream.
Adjective, Latin inguen = groin.
Lymph nodes located in the groin area of the lower abdomen.
Latin inhibitus = restrained, hence, reduction of the excitability of a synapse.
An agent that inhibits or blocks an activity.
A person who uses an illegal drug (e.g., heroin, cocaine) administered with a needle and syringe. The term intravenous drug user (IVDU) is also sometimes used.
Latin in = into, and nervus = nerve, hence, to supply a nerve to a part.
Lain in = not, and nomen = name, hence, without a name.
Latin insertio = to join into, implant, hence, to attach; noun - insertion.
Inability to sleep.
Latin inspectus = examined, hence, visual examination.
A multidisciplinary group that reviews and ensures the ethical conduct of clinical trials that include human participants.
Latin = island.
A peptide hormone produced in the pancreas that enables cells to use glucose. Lack of or insensitivity to insulin results in diabetes.
A condition in which the body's tissues cannot properly use insulin, leading to blood sugar imbalances.
Latin in = on, tegmen = roof, hence the skin coat.
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A method of analyzing the results of a clinical trial in which all participant who were originally assigned to an arm are analyzed, including those who dropped out due to treatment failure or side effects. Contrast with as-treated analysis.
Formed within a hyphal unit.
Adjective, Latin inter = between, and calatum = inserted, hence interposed.
Plasma that has left the capillaries and flowed into the spaces between the cells of the tissues: also known as interstitial fluid or tissue fluid.
Latin inter = between, and digitus = a digit. Hence, to interlock like fingers.
A cytokine (messenger protein) that plays a role in immune response. The three major classes of interferon are alpha, beta, and gamma.
A naturally occurring protein produced by the immune system that interferes with viral replication. Interferon-alpha (brand names include Intron-A, Roferon-A) is standard treatment for HCV and is also approved for HBV. Side effects may include flu-like symptoms, fatigue, loss of appetite, depression, and anxiety.
A cytokine (chemical messenger), secreted by immune system blood cells, that regulates a range of immune functions.
Adjective, Latin internus = inward, hence, nearer the inside.
An agent that interferes with the translation of viral genetic material and thus inhibits viral reproduction.
A standard unit of measurement.
A doctor specializing in internal medicine (not requiring surgery).
Adjective, Latin inter = between, nuncius = messenger.
A form of therapy that concentrates on illuminating and ironing out problems in current relationships (see Depression).
Adjective, Latin inter = between, and sistum = set, hence, set between.
Plasma that has left the capillaries and flowed into the spaces between the cells of the tissues: also known as intercellular or tissue fluid.
The fluid filled areas that surround the cells of a given tissue; also known as tissue space.
Bacteria and other organisms that normally grow in the intestine.
Surface lining of the intestines where the absorption of nuttients takes place.
Also called bowel or gut (see large intestine; small intestine).
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Latin = innermost.
Inability of the body to tolerate a drug, resulting in adverse side effects.
Latin = within.
Into or within a joint, e.g. intra-articular injection.
Within a cell.
Adjective, Latin intra = within, fusus = spindle.
Injected directly into a vein.
An antibody preparation administered intravenously to treat illness in a person whose own immune system does not produce sufficient antibodies.
Adjective, Latin = on the inside.
Inability of the urinary sphincter to close completely (see Urinary Incontinence).
Latin intro = within, and ire = to go, hence, an orifice or point of entry to a cavity or space.
Brand name of interferon-alpha-2b, produced by Schering-Plough.
The entrance and growth of an organism in tissue.
Lain in = in, and vertere = to turn, hence to turn inward, inside out, upside down.
An FDA classification for experimental drugs that are undergoing clinical trials to assess their safety and effectiveness prior to marketing approval.
A clinical researcher who is involved with a clinical trial protocol and its implementation. The Principal Investigator is ultimately responsible for the conduct of the trial.
Latin ipsi = self, the same, and latus = side, hence on the same side.
See internal ribosome entry site inhibitor.
Latin = a rainbow.
An important trace element needed for the production of hemoglobin in red blood cells. High levels of iron can be toxic to the liver.
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The most common type of anemia, caused by a lack of iron.
Substances (tobacco or wood smoke, perfumes, and so on) that cause allergy-like symptoms, although the response is not an allergic reaction (see Allergies).
Reduced blood supply to bodily tissues.
Greek ischion = socket, because the ischium contributes more than either the ilium or pubis to the acetabulum.
A cell in the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas that produces insulin.
Clusters of hormone-producing cells, including alpha and beta cells, that appear throughout the pancreas (see Diabetes).
Greek = equal.
A form of hypertension characterized by elevated systolic blood pressure and normal diastolic pressure (see Hypertension).
Greek isthmos - a narrow passage.
See international unit.
See injection drug user.
See intravenous immunoglobulin
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