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Medical Dictionary

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An alphabetical listing of General terms and items.

 
IBUPROFEN   Dico Tools
A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used to relieve pain and reduce fever. Advil, Aleve, and Motrin are common brand names.


ICTERUS   Dico Tools
See jaundice.


ICW   Dico Tools
The ICW (Intracellular water) represents the total volume of intracellularwater. ICW is calculated by BCM


IDIOPATHIC   Dico Tools
A term used to describe a disease or condition of unknown cause or origin.


IDU   Dico Tools
See injection drug user.


IFN   Dico Tools
See interferon.


IG   Dico Tools
Immunoglobulin. see antibody.


Ileum   Dico Tools
The major part of the small intestine (see small intestine).


Ilium   Dico Tools
Latin the bone of the flank, adjective - iliac.


Ilium (or Iliac Bone)   Dico Tools
Major bony component of the pelvis. There is one on each side, joined to the sacrum via the right and left sacroiliac joints.


Ima   Dico Tools
Adjective, Latin = lowest, hence artery thyroidea ima.


IMMUNE CLEARANCE   Dico Tools
A phase of chronic HBV that is marked by increased levels of ALT and HBV DNA (viral load). During this phase there is more damage occurring in the liver.


IMMUNE DYSFUNCTION SYNDROME, CFIDS)   Dico Tools
An illness characterized by prolonged fatigue, neurological problems, joint and muscle pain, and/or impairment of the ability to function normally for six months or longer.


IMMUNE GLOBULIN   Dico Tools
See antibody.


IMMUNE RESPONSE   Dico Tools
The activity of the immune system, for example against an outside invader (e.g., bacteria, virus), cancerous cells, or the body's own tissues (autoimmune response).


IMMUNE SYSTEM   Dico Tools
The body's defense system that protects against foreign invaders (e.g., bacteria, viruses). Some immune defenses are nonspecific (e.g., phagocytosis), while others are directed against specific invaders (e.g., antibody production). Organs of the immune system include the lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, and tonsils.


IMMUNE TOLERANT   Dico Tools
A phase of chronic HBV when HBV DNA levels are high, but ALT levels are low. This indicates that there is little liver damage occurring.


IMMUNITY   Dico Tools
Resistance to disease; the body's ability to recognize and defend against outside invaders and cancerous cells. Immunity may be either natural or acquired (for example, artificially induced through a vaccine).


IMMUNIZATION   Dico Tools
The process by which a person is protected against illness caused by a pathogen (e.g., bacteria, virus). Active immunization (vaccination) involves exposing a person to antigens to prompt the body to mount an immune response (e.g., production of antibodies). Passive immunization involves the injection of an antibody preparation (e.g., gamma globulin).


IMMUNOCOMPETENT   Dico Tools
Capable of mounting an immune response.


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IMMUNOCOMPROMISE   Dico Tools
See immunodeficiency.


IMMUNODEFICIENCY   Dico Tools
Inability of the immune system to work properly, resulting in increased susceptibility to disease.


IMMUNODIFFUSION   Dico Tools
A serologic test to determine the presence of antibody by double diffusion precipitation in auger.


IMMUNOGLOBULIN   Dico Tools
See antibody.


Immunoglobulin E (IgE)   Dico Tools
The antibody responsible for the majority of allergic reactions. Triggered by allergens, IgE on the surface of mast cells fires up the explosive release of histamine (see Allergies, Asthma).


IMMUNOMODULATOR   Dico Tools
An agent that influences the body's immune response.


IMMUNOSUPPRESSION   Dico Tools
See immunodeficiency.


IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE   Dico Tools
A drug or other agent that decreases immune system function.


Immunotherapy (allergy Shots)   Dico Tools
A long-term program of desensitization that induces tolerance to an identified allergen. This treatment is commonly used for allergic rhinitis, asthma, allergies to stinging insects, and conjunctivitis (see Allergies).


IMMUNOTHERAPY (IMMUNE-BASED THERAPY)   Dico Tools
A therapy that attempts to modify or enhance the immune response or reconstitute a damaged immune system.


Impaired Fasting Glucose   Dico Tools
A condition diagnosed with a fasting glucose test; blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not yet diabetic (see Diabetes).


Impaired Glucose Tolerance   Dico Tools
A condition similar to impaired fasting glucose (see previous entry), but diagnosed with an oral glucose tolerance test (see Diabetes).


Impairment   Dico Tools
In the context of health experience, an impairment is any loss or abnormality of psychological, physiological or anatomical structure or function (WHO, 1980).


Impar   Dico Tools
Latin = unpaired.


IMPDH INHIBITOR   Dico Tools
See inosine monophosphate dehyrogenase inhibitor.


Impedance Plane   Dico Tools
The raw data of a bioimpedance measurement is usually presented in the impedance plane. The x-axis represents the resistance and the y-axis usually denotes the reactance.


In Situ   Dico Tools
Latin for "in place." As part of the term "ductal carcinoma in situ," it means that cancer cells exist and are still contained within the ducts of the milk-producing gland (see Breast Cancer).


IN UTERO   Dico Tools
In the uterus; refers to events that occur in the womb before birth.


IN VITRO   Dico Tools
Latin for "in glass"; refers to studies done in a test tube or culture medium in the laboratory.


IN VIVO   Dico Tools
Latin for "in a living organism"; refers to studies done using human or animal subjects.


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INACTIVE CARRIER   Dico Tools
A phase of chronic HBV that is marked by low HBV DNA, and ALT levels indicating less damage occurring in the liver.


Incidence   Dico Tools
The rate of occurrence of some event, such as the number of individuals who get a disease divided by a total given population, per unit of time (usually per year). In contrast to prevalence, incidence describes the number of new cases of a disease among a certain group of people for a certain period of time, i.e. how often a new case is diagnosed.


INCIDENCE (also INCIDENCE RATE)   Dico Tools
The number of new cases of a disease or condition in a specific population during a given period of time. The incidence rate is determined by dividing the number of new cases by the total population. Contrast with prevalence.


Incisor   Dico Tools
Latin incisum = cut up.


Incisura   Dico Tools
Latin = notch.


INCLUSION CRITERIA   Dico Tools
Conditions that a person must meet in order to be eligible for a clinical trial. Contrast with exclusion criteria.


INCUBATION PERIOD   Dico Tools
The period of time between initial exposure to an infectious microorganism and the development of disease symptoms.


Incus   Dico Tools
Latin = anvil, hence the anvil-shaped ossicle of the middle ear.


Index   Dico Tools
Latin = a pointer, hence, the fore-finger.


Indicis   Dico Tools
Genitive of Latin index = a pointer, hence, of the fore-finger.


INDUCTION THERAPY   Dico Tools
The initiation phase of a particular treatment. Typically induction therapy uses higher or more frequent doses of a drug. Contrast with maintenance therapy.


INDURATED   Dico Tools
Hard.


Indusium   Dico Tools
Latin = tunic.


INFECTION   Dico Tools
A condition in which the body is invaded by an infectious organism (e.g., bacteria, virus, fungus).


INFECTIOUS   Dico Tools
A disease or condition that can be transmitted from one person to another.


INFECTIOUS HEPATITIS   Dico Tools
See hepatitis A.


INFERGEN   Dico Tools
Brand name of interferon alfacon 1 consensus interferon, produced by Amgen/Valeant Pharmaceuticals.


Inferior   Dico Tools
Adjective, Latin = lower down, hence, farther from the head end.


Infiltrating Cancer   Dico Tools
A cancer that has spread from its site of origin into surrounding tissue (see Breast Cancer).


INFLAMMATION   Dico Tools
The body's response to tissue injury or infection, typically characterized by redness, swelling, heat, and pain.


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Inflammatory Bowel Disease   Dico Tools
A chronic (long-lasting) inflammatory disease of the gut, e.g. ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease.


INFORMED CONSENT   Dico Tools
A mechanism designed to protect subjects in clinical trials. Before entering a trial, participants must sign a form stating that they have been given and understand important information about the trial (including possible risks and benefits) and voluntarily agree to take part.


Infra   Dico Tools
Latin = below.


Infundibulum   Dico Tools
Latin = funnel.


INFUSION   Dico Tools
Direct injection (e.g., of a drug, nutrients) into the bloodstream.


Inguinal   Dico Tools
Adjective, Latin inguen = groin.


Inguinal Nodes   Dico Tools
Lymph nodes located in the groin area of the lower abdomen.


Inhibition   Dico Tools
Latin inhibitus = restrained, hence, reduction of the excitability of a synapse.


INHIBITOR   Dico Tools
An agent that inhibits or blocks an activity.


INJECTION DRUG USER (IDU)   Dico Tools
A person who uses an illegal drug (e.g., heroin, cocaine) administered with a needle and syringe. The term intravenous drug user (IVDU) is also sometimes used.


Innervate   Dico Tools
Latin in = into, and nervus = nerve, hence, to supply a nerve to a part.


Innominate   Dico Tools
Lain in = not, and nomen = name, hence, without a name.


Insert   Dico Tools
Latin insertio = to join into, implant, hence, to attach; noun - insertion.


INSOMNIA   Dico Tools
Inability to sleep.


Inspection   Dico Tools
Latin inspectus = examined, hence, visual examination.


INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD (IRB)   Dico Tools
A multidisciplinary group that reviews and ensures the ethical conduct of clinical trials that include human participants.


Insula   Dico Tools
Latin = island.


INSULIN   Dico Tools
A peptide hormone produced in the pancreas that enables cells to use glucose. Lack of or insensitivity to insulin results in diabetes.


INSULIN RESISTANCE   Dico Tools
A condition in which the body's tissues cannot properly use insulin, leading to blood sugar imbalances.


Integument   Dico Tools
Latin in = on, tegmen = roof, hence the skin coat.


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INTENT-TO-TREAT ANALYSIS   Dico Tools
A method of analyzing the results of a clinical trial in which all participant who were originally assigned to an arm are analyzed, including those who dropped out due to treatment failure or side effects. Contrast with as-treated analysis.


INTERCALARY   Dico Tools
Formed within a hyphal unit.


Intercalated   Dico Tools
Adjective, Latin inter = between, and calatum = inserted, hence interposed.


Intercellular Fluid   Dico Tools
Plasma that has left the capillaries and flowed into the spaces between the cells of the tissues: also known as interstitial fluid or tissue fluid.


Interdigitate   Dico Tools
Latin inter = between, and digitus = a digit. Hence, to interlock like fingers.


INTERFERON (IFN)   Dico Tools
A cytokine (messenger protein) that plays a role in immune response. The three major classes of interferon are alpha, beta, and gamma.


INTERFERON-ALPHA   Dico Tools
A naturally occurring protein produced by the immune system that interferes with viral replication. Interferon-alpha (brand names include Intron-A, Roferon-A) is standard treatment for HCV and is also approved for HBV. Side effects may include flu-like symptoms, fatigue, loss of appetite, depression, and anxiety.


INTERLEUKIN (IL)   Dico Tools
A cytokine (chemical messenger), secreted by immune system blood cells, that regulates a range of immune functions.


Internal   Dico Tools
Adjective, Latin internus = inward, hence, nearer the inside.


INTERNAL RIBOSOME ENTRY SITE INHIBITOR   Dico Tools
An agent that interferes with the translation of viral genetic material and thus inhibits viral reproduction.


INTERNATIONAL UNIT (IU)   Dico Tools
A standard unit of measurement.


Internist   Dico Tools
A doctor specializing in internal medicine (not requiring surgery).


Internuncial   Dico Tools
Adjective, Latin inter = between, nuncius = messenger.


Interpersonal Therapy   Dico Tools
A form of therapy that concentrates on illuminating and ironing out problems in current relationships (see Depression).


Interstitial   Dico Tools
Adjective, Latin inter = between, and sistum = set, hence, set between.


Interstitial Fluid   Dico Tools
Plasma that has left the capillaries and flowed into the spaces between the cells of the tissues: also known as intercellular or tissue fluid.


Interstitial Space   Dico Tools
The fluid filled areas that surround the cells of a given tissue; also known as tissue space.


Intestinal Flora   Dico Tools
Bacteria and other organisms that normally grow in the intestine.


Intestinal Mucosa   Dico Tools
Surface lining of the intestines where the absorption of nuttients takes place.


Intestine   Dico Tools
Also called bowel or gut (see large intestine; small intestine).


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Intima   Dico Tools
Latin = innermost.


INTOLERANCE   Dico Tools
Inability of the body to tolerate a drug, resulting in adverse side effects.


Intra   Dico Tools
Latin = within.


Intra-articular   Dico Tools
Into or within a joint, e.g. intra-articular injection.


INTRACELLULAR   Dico Tools
Within a cell.


Intrafusal   Dico Tools
Adjective, Latin intra = within, fusus = spindle.


INTRAVENOUS (IV)   Dico Tools
Injected directly into a vein.


INTRAVENOUS IMMUNOGLOBULIN (IVIG)   Dico Tools
An antibody preparation administered intravenously to treat illness in a person whose own immune system does not produce sufficient antibodies.


Intrinsic   Dico Tools
Adjective, Latin = on the inside.


Intrinsic Sphincter Deficiency   Dico Tools
Inability of the urinary sphincter to close completely (see Urinary Incontinence).


Introitus   Dico Tools
Latin intro = within, and ire = to go, hence, an orifice or point of entry to a cavity or space.


INTRON-A   Dico Tools
Brand name of interferon-alpha-2b, produced by Schering-Plough.


INVASIVE   Dico Tools
The entrance and growth of an organism in tissue.


Inversion   Dico Tools
Lain in = in, and vertere = to turn, hence to turn inward, inside out, upside down.


INVESTIGATIONAL NEW DRUG (IND)   Dico Tools
An FDA classification for experimental drugs that are undergoing clinical trials to assess their safety and effectiveness prior to marketing approval.


INVESTIGATOR   Dico Tools
A clinical researcher who is involved with a clinical trial protocol and its implementation. The Principal Investigator is ultimately responsible for the conduct of the trial.


Ipsilateral   Dico Tools
Latin ipsi = self, the same, and latus = side, hence on the same side.


IRES INHIBITOR   Dico Tools
See internal ribosome entry site inhibitor.


Iris   Dico Tools
Latin = a rainbow.


IRON   Dico Tools
An important trace element needed for the production of hemoglobin in red blood cells. High levels of iron can be toxic to the liver.


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IRON-DEFICIENCY ANEMIA   Dico Tools
The most common type of anemia, caused by a lack of iron.


Irritants   Dico Tools
Substances (tobacco or wood smoke, perfumes, and so on) that cause allergy-like symptoms, although the response is not an allergic reaction (see Allergies).


ISCHEMIA   Dico Tools
Reduced blood supply to bodily tissues.


Ischium   Dico Tools
Greek ischion = socket, because the ischium contributes more than either the ilium or pubis to the acetabulum.


ISLET CELL   Dico Tools
A cell in the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas that produces insulin.


Islets Of Langerhans   Dico Tools
Clusters of hormone-producing cells, including alpha and beta cells, that appear throughout the pancreas (see Diabetes).


Iso   Dico Tools
Greek = equal.


Isolated Systolic Hypertension   Dico Tools
A form of hypertension characterized by elevated systolic blood pressure and normal diastolic pressure (see Hypertension).


Isthmus   Dico Tools
Greek isthmos - a narrow passage.


IU   Dico Tools
See international unit.


IV   Dico Tools
See intravenous.


IVDU   Dico Tools
See injection drug user.


IVIG   Dico Tools
See intravenous immunoglobulin



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