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Medical Dictionary

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An alphabetical listing of General terms and items.

 
Obesity   Dico Tools
A body mass index of 30 or greater (See Weight Management).


Obex   Dico Tools
Latin = barrier; hence, the coronal fold of ependyma over the lower angle of the 4th ventricle.


Oblique   Dico Tools
Adjective, Latin obliquus; slanting, or deviating from the perpendicular or the horizontal.


Oblongata   Dico Tools
Latin oblongus = oblong; medulla oblongata.


Obturator   Dico Tools
Latin obturatus = stopped up; hence, a structure which closes a hole.


Occiput   Dico Tools
Latin ob = prominent (cf. obvious), and caput = head; hence, the prominent convexity of the back of the head; adjective - occipital.


Occlusion   Dico Tools
Latin occlusum = closed up; hence, apposition of reciprocal teeth, or the blocking of any tubular structure; adjective - occlusal.


Oculomotor   Dico Tools
Latin oculus = eye, and movere = to move, hence, pertaining to moving the eye.


Oculus   Dico Tools
Latin = eye.


Odontoid   Dico Tools
Greek odous = tooth, and eidos = form, shape, hence, tooth-like.


Oesophagus   Dico Tools
Greek = gullet (passage from pharynx to stomach); adjective - oesophageal.


OFF-LABEL   Dico Tools
Use of an FDA-approved drug for an indication other than that for which it was approved.


OH   Dico Tools
Overhydration represents the excess fluid (fluid overload) stored almost exclusively in the extracellular volume of a patient, and is therefore part of the ECW.


Olecranon   Dico Tools
Greek olene = ulna, and kranion = upper part of head; hence, the upper end of the ulna.


Olfactory   Dico Tools
Adjective, Latin olfacto = smell.


Oligoarthritis   Dico Tools
Inflammation of up to four joints; if more joints are involved, then the disease is called poly, arthritis.


Olive   Dico Tools
Latin oliva - the oval fruit of the olive tree; oval eminence on medulla oblongata; adjective - olivary.


Omentum   Dico Tools
Latin = apron; adjective - omental.


Omohyoid   Dico Tools
Greek omos = shoulder; hence, a muscle attached to the scapula and hyoid.


ONCOGEN   Dico Tools
An agent that promotes neoplastic cell growth, or cancer.


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ONCOGENESIS   Dico Tools
The development and growth of cancer.


ONCOLOGIST   Dico Tools
A physician who specializes in the treatment of cancer.


ONCOLOGY   Dico Tools
The study and treatment of cancer.


Oncology Massage Therapist   Dico Tools
A licensed massage therapist who has taken continuing education courses in treatment techniques that are appropriate for the comfort and wellbeing of cancer patients. Unless the therapist has also taken specialized training in the treatment of lymphedema, he or she is not qualified to treat patients with lymphedema.


Onycholysis   Dico Tools
Nail abnormality and discoloration seen in psoriasis and reactive arthritis; may be accompanied by pitting of the nail in psoriasis.


OPEN-LABEL   Dico Tools
A drug trial which is not randomized and not blinded; both participants and investigators know what drug is being tested and what dosages are being used.


Operculum   Dico Tools
Latin = lid or cover; hence, operculum insulae, the cerebral cortex covering and hiding the insula (the 5th lobe of cerebral cortex).


Ophthalmic   Dico Tools
Adjective, Greek ophthalmos = eye.


OPIATE (NARCOTIC)   Dico Tools
A class of drugs (e.g., heroin, codeine, methadone) that are derived from the opium poppy or produced synthetically and have opium-like effects. Opiate drugs relieve pain, dull the senses, and induce sleep.


Opponens   Dico Tools
Latin = placing against, opposing.


OPPORTUNISTIC ILLNESS (OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTION, OI   Dico Tools
An illness or infection that does not normally occur in a person with a healthy immune system, but affects immunocompromised persons.


OPPORTUNISTIC ILLNESS (OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTION, OI   Dico Tools
An illness or infection that does not normally occur in a person with a healthy immune system, but affects immunocompromised persons.


Oppose   Dico Tools
Latin oppositum = put against; hence, to resist or place in contact with, and opposition - the action of opposing.


Optic   Dico Tools
Adjective, Greek optos = seen; hence, pertaining to sight.


Ora   Dico Tools
Latin ora = margin or edge.


Ora Serrata   Dico Tools
Latin ora = margin, and serra = saw; hence, the serrated anterior edge of the functional part of the retina.


ORAL   Dico Tools
Relating to the mouth; taken by mouth.


Oral Glucose Tolerance Test   Dico Tools
A two-part test that first measures blood glucose levels after an overnight fast, and then two hours after consumption of a sugary solution; sometimes used in conjunction with fasting plasma glucose test (see Diabetes).


Orbit   Dico Tools
Latin orbis = circle; the name given to the bony socket in which the eyeball rotates; adjective - orbital.


ORGANIC FOOD   Dico Tools
Food that is grown naturally without the use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, or other artificial intervention.


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ORGANOTROPISM   Dico Tools
The predilection of a fungus to invade a particular organ.


Orifice   Dico Tools
Latin orificium = opening.


Os, Oris   Dico Tools
Latin os = mouth; plural - ora, adjective - oral.


Os, Ossis   Dico Tools
Latin os = bone; plural - ossa, adjective - osseous.


Osgood-Schlatter's Disease   Dico Tools
A childhood condition of the site of attachment of the patellar (kneecap) tendon into the tibial tubercle, a bony prominence an inch or so below the kneecap. Results in localized pain and tenderness that can sometimes be confused with enthesitis at this site seen in some children with juvenile AS and related diseases.


Ossicle   Dico Tools
Latin ossiculus, diminutive of os = bone.


Ossify   Dico Tools
Latin os = bone, and facio = make; hence, to form bone; and ossification, the process of bone formation.


Osteitis Condensans Ilii   Dico Tools
Increased bone density (sclerosis) at the sacral side of the sacroiliac joint that is of unknown cause and is usually without symptoms. Its X-ray appearance can be confused with sacroiliitis.


OSTEOARTHRITIS   Dico Tools
Degenerative joint disease.


Osteoarthritis (osteoarthrosis)   Dico Tools
Degenerative disorder of joints, most often from disease in the spine and in the weight bearing joints (knees and hips). Normally seen with aging, but can occur prematurely due to various reasons, for instance after an injury to a joint. Also known as degenerative joint disease, it can cause joint pain, loss of function, reduced joint motion, and deformity.


Osteoblasts   Dico Tools
Bone-forming cells (see Osteoporosis).


Osteoclasts   Dico Tools
Bone-removing cells (see Osteoporosis).


Osteocytes   Dico Tools
Osteoblasts that have completed their bone-forming function and have become trapped in new bone tissue, evolving into structural bone cells (see Osteoporosis).


Osteology   Dico Tools
Greek osteon = bone, and logy = a field of study.


Osteomalacia   Dico Tools
Bone-thinning disorder resulting from deficiency of vitamin D. Can be mistaken for osteoporosis, and can also be confused with spondylitis. The childhood form of osteomalacia is called rickets.


Osteons   Dico Tools
The basic units of compact bone, consisting of tightly packed concentric rings of tissue with a blood vessel running through the central channel (see Osteoporosis).


Osteophyte   Dico Tools
Bony outgrowth (seen on X-ray) at joint margin of an osteoarthritic joint, or in degenerative disc disease.


Osteoporosis   Dico Tools
A bone-thinning condition that can result in bone fracture (see Menopause, Osteoporosis).


Ostium   Dico Tools
Latin = a door, an opening, an orifice.


OTC   Dico Tools
See over-the-counter.


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Otic   Dico Tools
Adjective, Greek otos = ear.


Otolith   Dico Tools
Greek otos = ear, and lithos = stone; hence, calcareous particles in the utricle and saccule of the membranous labyrinth.


Ovary   Dico Tools
Latin ovum = egg; hence, the organ containing ova (the largest cells in the female).


OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC)   Dico Tools
Drugs that are available without a prescription.


Overactive Bladder   Dico Tools
Frequent urination and urges to urinate; a popular name for detrusor instability (see Urinary Incontinence).


Overweight   Dico Tools
A body mass index of 25 to 29.9 (See Weight Management).


Ovum   Dico Tools
Latin = egg, plural - ova.


Oxidation   Dico Tools
A process in which oxygen combines with a substance, altering its structure and changing or destroying its normal function (see High Cholesterol).


OXIDATIVE STRESS   Dico Tools
Increased levels of free radicals in the body, potentially leading to cell damage and death.



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