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An alphabetical listing of General terms and items.
A fortification which was made chiefly of earth; either for temporary or permanent use, for either defensive or offensive purposes, constructed by excavating and embanking earth. See rampart.
(1) A watch tower or bartizan. See bartizan, machicolated turret. (2) A round sentry box sited at the angle of a bastion, which was corbelled out so as to facilitate observation of the surrounding terrain.
To reflect received data to the sender. For example, keys depressed on a keyboard are usually echoed as characters displayed on the screen.
A small gallery situated in the foreground of the glacis, connected to a main gallery running parallel to the covert way, where a miner would listen for the noises made by enemy miners, thus enabling countermines to be dug to intercept them. Also known as catacoustics.
The castles which were raised by Edward the 1st, to control the newly acquired territories in Wales, these castles are amongst the finest examples of concentric fortifications of the period.
Half circle merlons used on Egyptian fortifications (ie Medinet Habu, the palace of Rameses III, about 1200 B.C.). See merlon.
An engineer concerned with electrical devices and systems and with the use of electrical energy
Electrical noise induced upon the signal wires that obscures the wanted information signal.
See Isopotential point.
The difference in potential established between an electrode and a solution when the electrode is immersed in the solution.
Any substance which, when in solution will conduct an electric current. Acids, bases, and salts are common electrolytes.
The potential difference between the two electrodes in a cell. The cell emf is the cell voltage measured when no current is flowing through the cell. It can be measured by means of a pH meter with high input impedance.
A standards organization specializing in the electrical and functional characteristics of interface equipment.
A dam composed of a mound of earth and rock; the simplest type of gravity dam
See battlemented, crenellated.
(1) An opening in the parapet or the wall of a work for firing guns through at an enemy. The embrasure was internally splayed to allow the gun to be swung through a greater arc, thus increasing its field of fire. (2) The splayed interior of a gun loop, gun port, arrow loop or slit. (3) A crenel or a reveal. (Fr. braser, to splay).
Electromotive force. A rise in (electrical) potential energy. The principal unit is the volt.
The ratio of energy emitted by an object to the energy emitted by a blackbody at the same temperature. The emissivity of an object depends upon its material and surface texture; a polished metal surface can have an emissivity around 0.2 and a piece of wood can have an emissivity around 0.95.
When the level area within a bastion is lower than the ramparts the bastion is said to be empty.
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A tower which is described as being 'en bec' is a tower which has a beaked projection pointing towards the most likely direction of attack by an enemy's siege equipment.
(1) The body of a fortification, a fortified enclosure, generally the whole area which was enclosed by the main wall or rampart. (2) A fortified perimeter. (Fr. enceindre, to surround).
The apparent equivalence point of a titration at which a relatively large potential change is observed.
The end points of a full scale calibration curve.
Absorbs heat. A process is said to be endothermic when it absorbs heat.
Defensive artillery was fired from the flank of a work and directed along or across another, for example; from the salient of a bastion across the faces of an adjoining bastions or the curtain wall in between. This type of defence produces a better form of defence because it is more effective against advancing infantry than direct fire. (L. flium, thread).
A profession in which a knowledge of math and natural science is applied to develop ways to utilize the materials and forces of nature for the benefit of all human beings
A nine sided fortification.
The sum of the internal energy of a body and the product of its volume multiplied by the pressure.
To fortify with a trench and parapet.
A defensive earthwork consisting of trenches and parapets.
A small rampart built in a ditch or in front of it, which was used to cover a weak point in the works.
All conditions in which a transducer may be exposed during shipping, storage, handling, and operation.
An engineer who designs and operates systems to provide safe drinking water and to prevent and control pollution in water, in the air, and on the land
An earthwork sited where the flank and the face of a bastion join to form the shoulder of the bastion, which was used as a cover from flanking fire. (Fr. paule, shoulder).
A side work of a battery or earthwork which was used to protect it from flanking fire.
A castle which was governed by a bishop. (Gk. episkopos, overseer).
Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory. The PROM can be erased by ultraviolet light or electricity.
A fortification which has seven sides.
The product of the concentrations (or activities) of the substances produced at equilibrium in a chemical reaction divided by the product of concentrations of the reacting substances, each concentration raised to that power which is the coefficient of the substance in the chemical equation.
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Equal diffusion rates of the positively and negatively charged ions of an electrolyte across a liquid junction without charge separation.
Equivalent conductance of an electrolyte is defined as the conductance of a volume of solution containing one equivalent weight of dissolved substances when placed between two parallel electrodes 1 cm apart, and large enough to contain between them all of the solution. l is never determined directly, but is calculated from the specific conductance (Ls). If C is the concentration of a solution in gram equivalents per liter, then the concentration of a solution in gram equivalents per liter, then the concentration per cubic centimeter is C/1000, and the volume containing one equivalent of the solute, is, therefore, 1000/C.
The difference between the value indicated by the transducer and the true value of the measurand being sensed. Usually expressed in percent of full scale output.
The allowable deviations to output from a specific reference norm. Usually expressed as a percentage of full scale.
A Spanish hexagonal shaped bartizan of the 14th century. See bartizan.
(1) The side of a ditch which was next to the rampart. (2) To make into a scarp or sudden slope. See scarp.
The foreground of a fortification, which was excavated precipitously to hinder an enemy's approach.
The space between a citadel and the surrounding houses of a fortified city, which was purposely kept clear so as to eliminate any cover for an enemy force attempting to erect breaching batteries or making approaches.
(1) A barrier or dike constructed of wooden piles driven into the sea or river bed, to obstruct an enemy's advance. (2) A form of defence made of stakes, such as a stockade. (3) A raft fasted together with chains, which was used to render a channel or harbour mouth impassable. (Sp. estaca, stake).
A small star shaped fort or redoubt which had four, five, six or more points, also known as a star redoubt. (Fr. toile, star).
The lowest possible melting point of a mixture of alloys.
A fortification which has six sides.
The external application of electrical voltage current applied to a transducer for normal operation.
Gives off heat. A process is said to be exothermic when it releases heat.
Correction factor for the change in density between two pressure measurement areas in a constricted flow.
An enclosure that can withstand an explosion of gases within it and prevent the explosion of gases surrounding it due to sparks, flashes or the explosion of the container itself, and maintain an external temperature which will not ignite the surrounding gases.
A form of construction of a thermocouple probe where the hot or measuring junction protrudes beyond the sheath material so as to be fully exposed to the medium being measured. This form of construction usually gives the fastest response time.
The line of intersection of the superior and exterior slopes.
The side connecting the exterior crest and the beam.
The exterior side of a fortification is the distance or the line between one bastion and the next.
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The line connecting the point of an arrow headed bastion to the adjacent rampart, making a 45 degree angle with the centre of the bastion. See arrow headed bastion, internal polygon.
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