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Accounting & Investement Dictionary

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An alphabetical listing of General terms and items.

S   Dico Tools
Fifth letter of a Nasdaq stock symbol specifying a beneficial interest.

S Corporation   Dico Tools
A domestic corporation that is recognized as a regular corporation under state law but is granted special status for federal income tax purposes.

S&P   Dico Tools
Standard & Poor's Corporation.

S&P 500 Composite Index   Dico Tools
Index of 500 widely held common stocks that measures the general performance of the market.

S&P Phenomenon   Dico Tools
Tendency of stocks newly added to the S&P composite index to rise in price due to a large number of buy orders as S&P-related index funds add the stock to their portfolios.

S&P Rating   Dico Tools
Rating service provided by S&P that indicates the amount of risk involved with different securities.

SaaS   Dico Tools
SaaS = Software as a services  The software as a service model is a way of providing the same software to different customers via a network, usually the Internet. In other words, the software is not hosted on the customers' individual computers. Under the SaaSmodel, a vendor is responsible for the creation, updating, and maintenance of software. Customers buy a subscription to access it, which includes a separate license, or seat, for each person that will use the software.

Safe Harbor   Dico Tools
Often used in risk arbitrage as a form of shark repellent. A target company acquires a business so onerously regulated that it makes the target less attractive, giving it, in effect, a safe harbor.

Safe Harbor Lease   Dico Tools
A lease to transfer tax benefits of ownership (depreciation and debt tax shield) from the lessee, if the lessee could not use them, to a lessor that could use them.

Safekeep   Dico Tools
Holding by a bank of bonds and money market instruments. For a fee, the bank clips coupons and presents for payment at maturity.

Safety Cushion   Dico Tools
In a contingent immunization strategy, the difference between the initially available immunization level and the safety-net return.

Safety-net Return   Dico Tools
The minimum available return that will trigger an immunization strategy in a contingent immunization strategy.

SAIF   Dico Tools
See: Savings Association Insurance Fund

Salary   Dico Tools
Payment for work, usually calculated in periods of a week or longer. Salary is usually tied to the completion of specific duties over a minimum but not maximum number of hours. (See Wage.)

Salary Freeze   Dico Tools
A temporary halt to increases in salary due to financial difficulties experienced by a company.

Salary Reduction Plan   Dico Tools
A plan allowing employees to contribute pre-tax income to a tax-deferred retirement plan.

Sale   Dico Tools
An agreement between a buyer and a seller on the price to be paid for a security, followed by delivery.

Sale And Lease-back   Dico Tools
Sale of an existing asset to a financial institution that then leases it back to the user. Related: Lease.

Sales Charge   Dico Tools
The fee charged by a mutual fund at purchase of shares, usually payable as a commission to a marketing agent, such as a financial adviser, who is thus compensated for assistance to a purchaser. It represents the difference, if any, between the share purchase price and the share net asset value.

Sales Discount   Dico Tools
A reduction in the selling price that is allowed if payment is received within a specified period.

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Sales Forecast   Dico Tools
A key input to a firm's financial planning process. External sales forecasts are based on historical experience, statistical analysis, and consideration of various macroeconomic factors.

Sales Journal   Dico Tools
A special journal in which credit sales are recorded.

Sales Literature   Dico Tools
Material written by an institution selling a product, which informs potential buyers of the product and its benefits.

Sales Load   Dico Tools
See: Sales charge

Sales Returns And Allowances   Dico Tools
A contra-revenue account in which the return of, or allowance for, reduction in the price of merchandise previously sold is recorded.

Sales Tax   Dico Tools
A percentage tax on the selling price of goods and services.

Sales Tax Payable   Dico Tools
Money collected from customers for sales taxes, that must be remitted to local governments and other taxing authorities.

Sales-type Lease   Dico Tools
The leasing out of a firm's own equipment, such as a printing company leasing its own presses, thereby competing with an independent leasing company.

Sallie Mae   Dico Tools
See: Student Loan Marketing Association

Salomon Brothers World Equity Index (SBWEI)   Dico Tools
A top-down, float capitalization-weighted index used to measure the performance of fixed-income and equity markets. It includes approximately 6000 companies in 22 countries.

Salvage Value   Dico Tools
Scrap value of plant and equipment.

Same-Day Funds Settlement   Dico Tools
A method of settlement used in trading between well-collateralized parties in good-the-same-day federal funds used by the Depository Trust Company for transactions in U.S. government securities, short-term municipal notes, medium-term commercial paper notes, CMOs, and other instruments.

Same-day Substitution   Dico Tools
Offsetting changes in a margin account during the day that result in no overall change in the balance of the account.

Samurai Bond   Dico Tools
A yen-denominated bond issued in Tokyo by a non-Japanese borrower. Related: Bulldog bond and Yankee bond.

Samurai Market   Dico Tools
The foreign market in Japan.

Santa Claus Rally   Dico Tools
Seasonal rise in stock prices in the last week of the calendar year, between Christmas and New Year's Day.

Sao Paulo Stock Exchange   Dico Tools
See: Bolsa de Valores de Sao Paulo

Saturday Night Special   Dico Tools
Often used in risk arbitrage. Sudden attempt by one company to take over another by making a public tender offer.

Saucer   Dico Tools
Technical chart pattern depicting a security whose price has reached bottom and is moving up.

Savings   Dico Tools
The process of setting aside money until a future date instead of spending it today. The goal of saving is to provide funds for emergencies, short-term goals, and investments.

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Savings Accounts   Dico Tools
Accounts at financial institutions that allow regular deposits and withdrawals. The minimum required deposit, fees charged, and interest rate paid varies among providers.

Savings And Loan Association   Dico Tools
National- or state-chartered institution that accepts savings deposits and invests the bulk of the funds thus received in mortgages.

Savings Association Insurance Fund   Dico Tools
A government organization that replaced the Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation as the provider of deposit insurance for thrift institutions.

Savings Bank   Dico Tools
An institution that primarily accepts consumer savings deposits and to make home mortgage loans.

Savings Bond   Dico Tools
A bond is a certificate representing a debt. A U.S. Savings Bond is a loan to the government. The government agrees to repay the amount borrowed, with interest, to the bondholder. Two types of savings bonds are Series EE and inflation-adjusted I bonds. Savings bonds are often purchased through payroll deduction or at financial institutions in denominations of $50 to $10,000.

Savings Deposits   Dico Tools
Accounts that pay interest, typically at below-market interest rates, that do not have a specific maturity, and that usually can be withdrawn upon demand.

Savings Element   Dico Tools
Used in the context of life insurance, the cash value built up in a policy, which equals the amount of premium paid minus the cost of protection. This excess is invested by the insurance company, and the returns are tax-deferred inside the policy.

Savings Rate   Dico Tools
Personal savings as a percentage of disposable personal income.

Scale   Dico Tools
Payment of different rates of interest on CDs of varying maturities. A bank is said to "post a scale." Commercial paper dealers also post scales.

Scale In   Dico Tools
Gradually taking a position in a security or market over time.

Scale Order   Dico Tools
Order to buy (sell) a security that specifies the total amount to be bought (sold) and the amount to be bought (sold) at successively decreasing (increasing) price intervals; often placed in order to average the price.

Scale-enhancing   Dico Tools
Describes a project that is in the same risk class as the whole firm. That is, the project allows the firm to grow larger in the context of their current business rather than diversify into new businesses.

Scalp   Dico Tools
To trade for small gains. Scalping normally involves establishing and liquidating a position quickly, usually within the same day.

Scattered   Dico Tools
Used for listed equity securities. Unconcentrated buy or sell interest.

Scenario Analysis   Dico Tools
The use of horizon analysis to project total returns under different reinvestment rates and future market yields.

Schedule 13d   Dico Tools
Disclosure form required when more than 5% of any class of equity securities in a publicly held corporation is purchased.

Schedule C   Dico Tools
Describes membership requirements and procedures of NASD, in its bylaws.

Scheduled Cash Flows   Dico Tools
The mortgage principal and interest payments due to be paid under the terms of the mortgage, not including possible prepayments.

Scorched-earth Policy   Dico Tools
Often used in risk arbitrage. Any technique a company that has become the target of a takeover attempt uses to make itself unattractive to the acquirer. For example, it may agree to sell off its crown jewels, or schedule all debt to become due immediately after a merger.

SCORE   Dico Tools
Stands for Special Claim on Residual Equity, a certificate that entitles the owner to the capital appreciation of an underlying security, but not to the dividend income from the security.

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Screen Stocks   Dico Tools
To analyze various stocks in search of stocks that meet predetermined criteria. For example, a simple value screen would sort all stocks by their price-to-book ratio and pick the stocks with the lowest ratios as candidates for the value portfolio.

Scrip   Dico Tools
A temporary document that represents a portion of a share of stock, often issued after a stock split or spin-off.

Scripophily   Dico Tools
Collecting stock and bond certificates for their scarcity, rather than for their value as securities.

SDR   Dico Tools
See: Special drawing rights

SEAQ   Dico Tools
See: Stock Exchange Automated Quotation System

Search Costs   Dico Tools
Costs associated with locating a counterparty to a trade, including explicit costs (such as advertising) and implicit costs (such as the value of time). Related: Information costs.

Seasonally Adjusted   Dico Tools
Mathematically adjusted by moderating a macroeconomic indicator (e.g., oil prices/imports) so that relative comparisons can be drawn from month to month all year.

Seasoned   Dico Tools
In the case of equity, having gained a reputation for quality with the investing public and enjoying liquidity in the secondary market; in the case of convertibles, having traded for at least 90 days after issue in Europe, and thus available for sale legally to U.S. investors.

Seasoned Datings   Dico Tools
Extended credit for customers who order goods in periods other than peak seasons.

Seasoned Issue   Dico Tools
Issue of a security for which there is an existing market. Related: Unseasoned issue.

Seasoned New Issue   Dico Tools
A new issue of stock after the company's securities have previously been issued. A seasoned new issue of common stock can be made using a cash offer or a rights offer.

Seat   Dico Tools
Position of membership on a securities or commodity exchange, bought and sold at market prices.

SEC   Dico Tools
SEC (Securities and Exchange Commission): The government body responsible for regulating the financial reporting practices of most publicly owned corporations in connection with the buying and selling of stocks and bonds.

SEC Fee   Dico Tools
Small fee the SEC charges to sellers of equity securities on an exchange.

Second Mortgage Lending   Dico Tools
Loans secured by real estate previously pledged in a first mortgage.

Second Pass Regression   Dico Tools
A cross-sectional regression of portfolio returns on betas. The estimated slope is the measurement of the reward for bearing systematic risk during the period analyzed.

Second Round   Dico Tools
Stage of venture capital financing following the start-up and first round stages and before the mezzanine level stage.

Second-preferred Stock   Dico Tools
Preferred stock issue that has less priority in claiming dividends and assets in liquidation than another issue of preferred stock.

Second-to-die Insurance   Dico Tools
Insurance policy that, on the death of the spouse dying last, pays a death benefit to the heirs that is designed to cover estate taxes.

Secondary Distribution/offering   Dico Tools
Public sale of previously issued securities held by large investors, usually corporations or institutions, as distinguished from a primary distribution, where the seller is the issuing corporation. The sale is handled off the NYSE, by a securities firm or a group of firms, and the shares are usually offered at a fixed price related to the current market price of the stock.

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Secondary Issue   Dico Tools
(1) Procedure for selling blocks of seasoned issues of stocks. (2) More generally, sale of already issued stock.

Secondary Market   Dico Tools
The market in which securities are traded after they are initially offered in the primary market. Most trading occurs in the secondary market. The New York Stock Exchange, as well as all other stock exchanges and the bond markets, are secondary markets. Seasoned securities are traded in the secondary market.

Secondary Mortgage Market   Dico Tools
Buying and selling existing mortgage loans, which are often pooled and traded as mortgage-backed securities.

Secondary Stocks   Dico Tools
Stocks with smaller market capitalization, less quality and more risk than blue chip issues that behave differently than larger corporations' stocks.

Section 125 Plan   Dico Tools
A formal plan to provide tax savings by reducing employee medical premiums from gross salary prior to calculation of federal income and social security taxes, as allowed under Internal Revenue Code (IRC) Section 125.

Section 482   Dico Tools
U.S. Department of Treasury regulations governing transfer prices.

Sector   Dico Tools
Used to characterize a group of securities that are similar with respect to maturity, type, rating, industry, and/or coupon.

Sector Rotation   Dico Tools
An active asset management strategy certain sectors, that tactically overweights and underweights depending on expected performance. Sometimes called rotation.

Secular   Dico Tools
Long-term time frame (10-50 years or more).

Secured Bond   Dico Tools
A bond backed by the pledge of collateral, a mortgage, or other lien, as opposed to an unsecured bond, called a debenture .

Secured Bonds   Dico Tools
Bonds for which assets have been pledged in order to guarantee repayment.

Secured Debt   Dico Tools
Debt that has first claim on specified assets in the event of default.

Securities & Exchange Commission (SEC)   Dico Tools
A federal agency that regulates the U.S. financial markets. The SEC also oversees the securities industry and promotes full disclosure in order to protect the investing public against malpractice in the securities markets.

Securities Act Of 1933   Dico Tools
First law designed to regulate securities markets, requiring registration of securities and disclosure.

Securities Acts Amendments Of 1975   Dico Tools
Legislation to encourage the establishment of a national market system together with a system for nationwide clearing and settlement of securities transactions.

Securities Analysts   Dico Tools
Related: Financial analysts

Securities And Commodities Exchanges   Dico Tools
Exchanges on which securities, options, and futures contracts are traded by members for their own accounts and for the accounts of customers.

Securities And Exchange Commission Rules   Dico Tools
Rules enacted by the SEC to assist in the regulation of U.S. financial markets.

Securities Exchange Act Of 1934   Dico Tools
Legislation that created the SEC, outlawing dishonest practices in the trading of securities.

Securities Exchange Of Thailand (SET)   Dico Tools
The only stock market in Thailand, based in Bangkok.

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Securities Industry Association (SIA)   Dico Tools
An association of broker-dealers who sell taxable securities, which lobbies the government, records industry trends, and keeps records of broker profits.

Securities Industry Committee On Arbitration   Dico Tools
A private group that provides mediation services in case of customer complaints against securities firms.

Securities Investor Protection Corporation   Dico Tools
A nonprofit corporation that insures customers' securities and cash held by member brokerage firms against the failure of those firms.

Securities Loan   Dico Tools
The loan of securities between brokers, often to cover a client's short sale; or a loan secured by marketable securities.

Securities Markets   Dico Tools
Organized exchanges plus over-the-counter markets in which securities are traded.

Securitization   Dico Tools
Creating a more or less standard investment instrument such as the mortgage pass-through security, by pooling assets to back the instrument. Also refers to the replacement of nonmarketable loans and/or cash flows provided by financial intermediaries with negotiable securities issued in the public capital markets.

Security   Dico Tools
Piece of paper that proves ownership of stocks, bonds, and other investments.

Security Characteristic Line   Dico Tools
A plot on a graph of the excess return on a security over the risk-free rate as a function of the excess return on the market. The slope of this line is the security's beta.

Security Deposit   Dico Tools
Synonymous with the term margin. A cash amount that must be deposited with the broker for each contract as a guarantee of fulfillment of the futures contract. It is not considered as part payment or purchase. Related: Margin.

Security Industry Automated Corporation   Dico Tools
Entity that executes automated DOT orders.

Security Market Line   Dico Tools
Line representing the relationship between expected return and market risk or beta. The slope of this line is the risk premium for beta.

Security Market Plane   Dico Tools
A plane that shows the relationship between expected return and the beta coefficient of more than one factor.

Security Ratings   Dico Tools
Commercial rating agencies' assessment of the credit and investment risk of securities.

Security Selection   Dico Tools
See: Security selection decision

Security Selection Decision   Dico Tools
Choosing the particular stocks or bonds or other investment instruments to include in a portfolio.

Seed Money   Dico Tools
The first contribution by a venture capitalist toward the financing of a new business, often using a loan or purchase of convertible bonds or preferred stock. See: Mezzanine level and second round.

Seek A Market   Dico Tools
Search for a securities buyer or seller.

Segregation Of Duties   Dico Tools
Strategy to provide an internal check on performance through separation of custody of assets from accounting personnel, separation of authorization of transactions from custody of related assets, separation of operational responsibilities from record keeping responsibilities.

Segregation Of Securities   Dico Tools
SEC rules to dictate how customers' securities may be used by broker-dealers in broker loans.

SEHK   Dico Tools
See: Stock Exchange of Hong Kong

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Select Ten Portfolio   Dico Tools
A unit investment trust that buys and holds for one year the ten stocks in the Dow Jones Industrial Average with the highest dividend yields.

Selected Dealer Agreement   Dico Tools
The set of rules governing the selling group in an underwriting.

Self-amortizing Mortgage   Dico Tools
Mortgage whose entire principal is paid off in a specified period of time with regular interest and principal payments.

Self-directed IRA   Dico Tools
An IRA that the account holder can after appointing a custodian manager to carry out investment instructions.

Self-employed Income   Dico Tools
Taxable income of a person involved in a sole proprietorship or other sort of free-lance work.

Self-employment Tax   Dico Tools
A tax self-employed people must pay to qualify them to receive Social Security benefits at retirement.

Self-liquidating Loan   Dico Tools
Loan to finance current assets. The sale of the current assets provides the cash to repay the loan.

Self-regulatory Organization   Dico Tools
Organizations that enforce fair, ethical, and efficient practices in the securities and commodity futures industries, including all national securities and commodities exchanges and the NASD.

Self-selection   Dico Tools
Consequence of a contract that induces only one group to participate.

Self-supporting Debt   Dico Tools
Bonds sold to finance a project that will produce enough revenue through tolls or other charges to retire the debt . See: revenue bond.

Sell Hedge   Dico Tools
Related: short hedge.

Sell Limit Order   Dico Tools
Conditional trading order that indicates that a security may be sold at the designated price or higher. Related: Buy limit order.

Sell Off   Dico Tools
Sale of securities under pressure. See: Dumping.

Sell Order   Dico Tools
An order that may take many different forms by an investor to a broker to sell a particular stock, bond, option, future, mutual fund, or other holding.

Sell Out   Dico Tools
Liquidation of a margin account after a customer has failed to bring an account to a required level by producing additional equity after a margin call.The selling of securities by a broker when a customer fails to pay for them.The complete sale of all securities in a new issue.

Sell Plus Order   Dico Tools
Market or limit order to sell a stated amount of stock provided that the price to be obtained is not lower than the last sale if the last sale was a plus, or zero plus tick, and is not lower than the last sale plus the minimum fractional change in the stock if the last sale was a minimum or zero minimum tick. (In a limit order, sale cannot be lower than the limit, regardless of tick.)

Sell The Book   Dico Tools
Used for listed equity securities. Order to a broker by the holder of a large quantity of shares of a security to sell all that can be absorbed at the current bid price. The term derives from the specialist's book - the record of all the buy and sell orders members have placed in the stock one handles. In this scenario, the buyers potentially include those in the specialist's book, the specialist for its own account, and broker-dealers.

Sell-side Analyst   Dico Tools
A financial analyst who works for a brokerage firm and whose recommendations are passed on to the brokerage firm's customers. Also called a Wall Street analyst.

Seller Financing   Dico Tools
Funding a purchase by a seller's loan to the buyer, the buyer takes full title to the property when the loan is fully repaid.

Seller's Market   Dico Tools
Market in which demand exceeds supply. As a result, the seller can dictate the price and the terms of sale.

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Seller's Option   Dico Tools
Delayed settlement/delivery in a transaction.

Selling Climax   Dico Tools
A sudden drop in security prices as sellers dump their holdings.

Selling Concession   Dico Tools
The discount underwriters offer the selling group on securities in a new issue.

Selling Dividends   Dico Tools
Inducing a prospective customer to buy shares in order to profit from a dividend scheduled in the near future.

Selling Group   Dico Tools
All banks involved in selling or marketing a new issue of stock or bonds.

Selling On The Good News   Dico Tools
A strategy of selling stock shortly after a company announces good news and the stock price rises. Investors believe that the price is as high as it can go and is on the brink of going down.

Selling Short   Dico Tools
Selling a stock not actually owned. If an investor thinks the price of a stock is going down, the investor could borrow the stock from a broker and sell it. Eventually, the investor must buy the stock back on the open market. For instance, you borrow 1000 shares of XYZ on July 1 and sell it for $8 per share. Then, on Aug. 1, you purchase 1000 shares of XYZ at $7 per share. You've made $1000 (less commissions and other fees) by selling short.

Selling Short Against The Box   Dico Tools
Selling short stock that is actually owned by the seller but held in the box, meaning it is held in safekeeping. The seller borrows securities needed to cover as the stock in the box may be inaccessible, or the seller may not wish to disclose ownership.

Selling The Spread   Dico Tools
A spread whose option to be sold is trading at a higher premium than the option to be bought.

Selling, General, And Administrative (SG&A) Expens   Dico Tools
Expenses such as salespersons' salaries and commissions, advertising and promotion, travel and entertainment, office payroll and expenses, and executives' salaries.

Semistrong-form Efficiency   Dico Tools
A form of pricing efficiency that profits the price of a security fully reflects all public information (including, but not limited to, historical price and trading patterns). Compare weak-form efficiency and strong-form efficiency.

Senior Debt   Dico Tools
Debt whose terms in the event of bankruptcy, require it to be repaid before subordinated debt receives any payment.

Senior Mortgage Bond   Dico Tools
A bond that, in the event of bankruptcy, will be redeemed before any other bonds are repaid.

Senior Refunding   Dico Tools
Replacement by the issuer of securities with 5-to 12-year maturities with securities of 15-year or longer maturities, in order to delay, reduce, or consolidate payment.

Senior Security   Dico Tools
A security that, in the event of bankruptcy, will be redeemed before any other securities.

Seniority   Dico Tools
The order of repayment. In the event of bankruptcy, senior debt must be repaid before subordinated debt is repaid.

Sensitive Market   Dico Tools
A market that reacts to a great extent to good or bad news.

Sensitivity Analysis   Dico Tools
Analysis of the effect on a project's profitability of changes in sales, cost, and so on.

Sentiment Indicators   Dico Tools
The general feeling of investors about the state of the market, such as whether they are bullish or bearish.

Separate Customer   Dico Tools
Method of allocating insurance by the Securities Investor Protection Corporation. Each account that is under the name of a different person or group of people is entitled to maximum protection.

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Separate Tax Returns   Dico Tools
Tax returns of married persons who choose to file their returns individually, usually because this approach produces lower overall tax payments.

Separation Property   Dico Tools
The property that portfolio choice can be divided into two independent tasks: (1) Determination of the optimal risky portfolio, which is a purely mathematical problem, and (2) the personal choice of the best mix of the optimal risky portfolio and the risk-free asset, which depends on a person's degree of risk aversion.

Separation Theorem   Dico Tools
Theory that the value of an investment to an individual is not dependent on consumption preferences. That is, investors will want to accept or reject the same investment projects by using the NPV rule, regardless of personal preference.

Serial Covariance   Dico Tools
The covariance between a variable and the lagged value of the variable; the same as autocorrelation.

Serial Entrepreneur   Dico Tools
Business person that successfully starts (does not kill) a number of different businesses.

Serial Redemption   Dico Tools
The redemption of a serial bond.

Series   Dico Tools
Options: All option contracts of the same class that also have the same unit of trade, expiration date, and exercise price. Stocks: shares that have common characteristics, such as rights to ownership and voting, dividends, or par value. In the case of many foreign shares, one series may be owned only by citizens of the country in which the stock is registered.

Series Bond   Dico Tools
Bond that may be issued in several series under the same indenture document.

Series E Bond   Dico Tools
A local and state tax-free bond issued by the U.S. government from 1941 to 1979, which was then replaced by Series HH bonds.

Series EE Bond   Dico Tools
See: Savings bond

Series HH Bond   Dico Tools
See: Savings bond

Set Of Contracts Perspective   Dico Tools
View of corporation as a set of contracting relationships among individuals who have conflicting objectives, such as shareholders or managers. The corporation is a legal construct that serves as the nexus for the contracting relationships.

Set Up   Dico Tools
Applies mainly to convertible securities. Arbitrage involving going long the convertible and short a certain percentage of the underlying common. Antithesis of Chinese hedge.

Set-aside   Dico Tools
A percentage of a municipal or corporate bond underwriting that is allocated for handling by a minority-owned broker/dealer firm.

Settlement   Dico Tools
When payment is made for a trade.

Settlement Date   Dico Tools
The date on which payment is made to settle a trade. For stocks traded on U.S. exchanges, settlement is currently three business days after the trade. For mutual funds, settlement usually occurs in the U.S. the day following the trade. In some regional markets, foreign shares may require months to settle.

Settlement Options   Dico Tools
The various possibilities open to a beneficiary under a life insurance policy as to how the benefit will be paid out.

Settlement Price   Dico Tools
A figure determined by the closing range that is used to calculate gains and losses in futures market accounts. Settlement prices are used to determine gains, losses, margin calls, and invoice prices for deliveries. Related: Closing range.

Settlement Rate   Dico Tools
The rate suggested in Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) 87 for discounting the obligations of a pension plan. The rate at which the pension benefits could be effectively settled if the company sponsoring the pension plan wishes to terminate its pension obligation.

Settlement Risk   Dico Tools
The risk that one party will deliver and the counterparty will not be able to pay and vice versa.

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Severally But Not Jointly   Dico Tools
An agreement between members of an underwriting group buy a new issue (severally), but not to assume joint liability for shares left unsold by other members.

Shadow Calendar   Dico Tools
A backlog of securities issues registered with the SEC, awaiting the determination of an offer date.

Shadow Stock   Dico Tools
First, a public company may create a stock that strips out the market wide movements for the purpose of rewarding managers. That is, the management might have done a great job - but the traded stock plummets because the market as a whole plummets. A second interpretation of shadow stock is a phantom stock that is created by a private company (i.e. that does not have stock traded either on exchange or over the counter) again for the purpose of performance evaluation and rewards.

Shakeout   Dico Tools
A dramatic change in market conditions that forces speculators to sell their positions, often at a loss.

Sham   Dico Tools
A business transaction, such as a limited partnership, that is entered into for the sake of avoiding tax.

Share Broker   Dico Tools
A discount broker who charges per share traded, and reduces the per unit charge as the number of shares traded increases, as opposed to a dealer who charges a percentage of the dollar amount of the trade.

Share Repurchase   Dico Tools
Program by which a corporation buys back its own shares in the open market. It is usually done when shares are undervalued. Since repurchase reduces the number of shares outstanding and thus increases earnings per share, it tends to elevate the market value of the remaining shares held by stockholders.

Shared Appreciation Mortgage   Dico Tools
A mortgage with a low rate of interest, offset by giving the lender some portion of the appreciation in the value of the underlying property.

Shareholder   Dico Tools
Person or entity that owns shares or equity in a corporation.

Shareholders   Dico Tools
shareholders (stockholders): Individuals or organizations that own a portion (shares of stock) of a corporation.

Shareholders' Equity   Dico Tools
This is a company's total assets minus total liabilities. A company's net worth is the same thing.

Shareholders' Letter   Dico Tools
A section of an annual report where one can find general overall discussion by management of successful and failed strategies. Provides guidance for looking at specific parts of the report.

Shares   Dico Tools
Certificates or book entries representing ownership in a corporation or similar entity.

Shares Authorized   Dico Tools
The maximum number of shares of stock of a company allowed in the articles of incorporation, which may be changed only by a shareholder vote. See: Issued and outstanding.

Shark Repellant   Dico Tools
Often used in risk arbitrage. Examples are golden parachutes, poison pills, safe harbor, and scorched-earth policy. Porcupine provision. Amendment to company charter intended to protect it against takeover.

Shark Watcher   Dico Tools
Often used in risk arbitrage. Firm specializing in the early detection of takeover activity. Such a firm, whose primary business is usually the solicitation of proxies for client corporations, monitors trading patterns in a client's stock and attempts to determine the identity of parties accumulating shares.

Sharpe Benchmark   Dico Tools
A statistically created benchmark that adjusts for a manager's index-like tendencies. Named after William Sharpe, Nobel Laureate, and developer of the capital asset pricing model.

Sharpe Ratio   Dico Tools
A measure of a portfolio's excess return relative to the total variability of the portfolio. Related: Treynor index. Named after William Sharpe, Nobel Laureate, and developer of the capital asset pricing model.

Shelf Offering   Dico Tools
Offering of registered securities covered by a prospectus whose distribution is not underwritten on a firm commitment basis. The shares may be sold in one block or in small amounts from time to time in agency or principal transactions. See: Rule 415.

Shelf Registration   Dico Tools
A procedure that allows firms to file one registration statement covering several issues of the same security. SEC Rule 415, adopted in the 1980s, allows a corporation to comply with registration requirements up to two years prior to a public offering of securities. With the registration "on the shelf," the corporation, by simply updating regularly filed annual, quarterly, and related reports to the SEC, can go to the market as conditions become favorable with a minimum of administrative preparation and expense.

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Shell Corporation   Dico Tools
An incorporated company with no significant assets or operations, often formed to obtain financing before beginning actual business, or as a front tax evasion.

Shirking   Dico Tools
The tendency to do less work when the return is smaller. Owners may have more incentive to shirk if they issue equity as opposed to debt, because they retain less ownership interest in the company and therefore may receive a smaller return. Thus, shirking is considered an agency cost of equity.

Shock Absorbers   Dico Tools
See: Circuit breakers

Shogun Bond   Dico Tools
Dollar bond issued in Japan by a nonresident.

Shootout   Dico Tools
Venture capital jargon. Refers to two or more venture capital firms fighting for the startup.

Shop   Dico Tools
Wall Street slang for a firm.

Shopped Stock   Dico Tools
Sell inquiry that has been seen by or shown to other dealers before coming to an investment bank.

Shopping   Dico Tools
Seeking to obtain the best bid or offer available by calling a number of dealers and/or brokers.

Short   Dico Tools
One who has sold a contract to establish a market position and who has not yet closed out this position through an offsetting purchase; the opposite of a long position. Related: Long.

Short Bonds   Dico Tools
Bonds with short (not much time to maturity) current maturities.

Short Book   Dico Tools
See: Unmatched book.

Short Coupon   Dico Tools
A bond payment covering less than six-months' interest, because the original issue date is less than six months from the first scheduled interest payment. A bond with a short time to maturity, usually two years or less.

Short Covering   Dico Tools
Used in the context of general equities. Actual purchase of securities by a short seller to replace those borrowed at the time of a short sale.

Short Exempt   Dico Tools
Used for listed equity securities. A special trading situation where a short sale is allowed on a minustick. The owners of a convertible trading at parity can sell the equivalent amount of common short on a minus tick, assuming they have the firm intention to convert.

Short Hedge   Dico Tools
The sale of futures contracts to eliminate or lessen the possible decline in value of an approximately equal amount of the actual financial instrument or physical commodity. Related: Long hedge.

Short Interest   Dico Tools
Total number of shares of a security that investors have sold short and that have not been repurchased to close out the short position. Usually, investors sell short to profit from price declines. As a result, the short interest is often an indicator of the amount of pessimism in the market about a particular security, although there are other reasons to short that are not related to pessimism. For example, hedging strategies for mergers and acquisition as well as derivative positions may involve short sales.

Short Interest Theory   Dico Tools
The theory that a large interest in short positions in stocks will precede a rise in the market prices, because the short positions must eventually be covered by purchases of the stock.

Short Position   Dico Tools
Occurs when a person sells stocks he or she does not yet own. Shares must be borrowed, before the sale, to make "good delivery" to the buyer. Eventually, the shares must be bought back to close out the transaction. This technique is used when an investor believes the stock price will drop.

Short Ratio(or Short Interest Ratio)   Dico Tools
Number of shares of a security that investors have sold short divided by average daily volume of the security (measured over 30 days or 90 days). There are various interpretations of this ratio. When people short, it is usually (but not always) because they are pessimistic about the security's future performance. Shorting involves buying at some point however. Hence, some would interpret a high short ratio as an indicator that there will be some buying pressure on the security that would increase its price.

Short Sale   Dico Tools
Selling a security that the seller does not own but is committed to repurchasing eventually. It is used to capitalize on an expected decline in the security's price.

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Short Selling   Dico Tools
Establishing a market position by selling a security one does not own in anticipation of the price of that security falling.

Short Settlement   Dico Tools
Trade settlement made prior to the standard five-day period due to customer request.

Short Squeeze   Dico Tools
When a lack of supply tends to force prices upward. In particular, when prices of a stock or commodity futures contracts start to move up sharply and many traders with short positions are forced to buy stocks or commodities in order to cover their positions and prevent (limit) losses. This sudden surge of buying leads to even higher prices, further aggravating the losses of short sellers who have not covered their positions.

Short Straddle   Dico Tools
A straddle involves both purchase and sale. In short straddle one put and one call are sold.

Short Tender   Dico Tools
Practice prohibited by SEC that involves the use of borrowed stock to respond to a tender offer.

Short-run Operating Activities   Dico Tools
Events and decisions concerning the short-term finance of a firm, such as how much inventory to order and whether to offer cash terms or credit terms to customers.

Short-sale Rule   Dico Tools
An SEC rule requiring that short sales be made only in a market that is moving upward; this means either on an uptick from the last sale, or showing no downward movement.

Short-short Test   Dico Tools
A repealed IRS restriction, that used to limit profits from short-term trading, which three months, to 30% of gross income. The penalty for exceeding this limit would be the loss of certain tax-free benefits.

Short-term   Dico Tools
Any investments with a maturity of one year or less.

Short-term Bond Fund   Dico Tools
A bond mutual fund holding short to intermediate-term bonds that have maturities of three to five years.

Short-term Debt   Dico Tools
Debt obligations, recorded as current liabilities, requiring payment within the year.

Short-term Financial Plan   Dico Tools
A financial plan that covers the coming fiscal year.

Short-term Gain   Dico Tools
A profit or loss realized from the sale of securities held for less than a year that is taxed at normal income tax rates if the net total is positive.

Short-term Investment Services   Dico Tools
Services that assist firms in making short-term investments.

Short-term Solvency Ratios   Dico Tools
Ratios used to judge the adequacy of liquid assets for meeting short-term obligations as they come due, including (1) the current ratio, (2) the acid test ratio, (3) the inventory turnover ratio, and (4) the accounts receivable turnover ratio.

Short-term Tax Exempts   Dico Tools
Short-term securities issued by states, municipalities, and quesi-government entities such as local housing and urban renewal agencies.

Shortage Cost   Dico Tools
Costs that fall with increases in the level of investment in current assets.

Shortfall Risk   Dico Tools
The risk of falling short of any investment target.

Show And Tell List   Dico Tools
Used in the context of general equities. Block list which is full of real customer indications (rather than profile).

Show Me Buyer/seller   Dico Tools
Used in the context of general equities. Customer who has not placed a firm order to buy stock but has requested that the salesperson propose available stock for sale or purchase, along with the asking/bid price. See: Bidding buyer.

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Show Stopper   Dico Tools
A legal barrier, such as a scorched-earth policy or shark repellant system, that firms use to prevent a takeover.

Shrinkage   Dico Tools
Discrepancy between a firm's actual inventory and its recorded inventory due to theft, deterioration, loss, or clerical problems.

Shut Out The Book   Dico Tools
Used for listed equity securities. Exclude a public bid or offer from participation in a print.

SIAC   Dico Tools
See: Security Industry Automated Corporation

SIC   Dico Tools
See: Standard Industrial Classification

Side Effects   Dico Tools
Effects of a proposed project on other parts of the firm.

Side-by-side Trading   Dico Tools
Trading a security and an option on the same security on the same exchange.

Sidelines   Dico Tools
Hypothetical position referring to noninvolvement in a stock; merely watching.

Sideways Market   Dico Tools
See: Horizontal price movement

Sight Draft   Dico Tools
Demand for immediate payment.

Signal   Dico Tools
To convey information through a firm's actions. The more costly it is to provide a signal, the more credibility it has. For example, to call a press conference and tell everyone that the firm's prospects have improved is less effective than saying the same thing and raising the dividend.

Signaling Approach   Dico Tools
Notion that insiders in a firm have information that the market does not have, and that the choice of capital structure by insiders can signal information to outsiders and change the value of the firm. This theory is also called the asymmetric information approach.

Signature Loan   Dico Tools
A good faith loan that is unsecured and requires only the borrower's signature on the loan application.

Significant Influence   Dico Tools
The holding of a large portion of the equity of a corporation, usually at least 20%, which gives the holder a significant amount of control over the corporation. This degree of holding must be recorded in a firm's financial statements.

Significant Influences   Dico Tools
Influence presumed if a company owns between 20% and 50% of another company.

Significant Order   Dico Tools
An order to buy or sell a large enough quantity of securities that the price of the security may be affected. Institutional investors usually spread out such an order over a few days or weeks to avoid adverse pressures on the buy or sell price.

Significant Order Imbalance   Dico Tools
A large number of buy or sell orders for a stock that cause an abnormally wide spread between bid and offer prices, and often causes the exchange to halt the sale of the stock until significant balance has been reestablished.

Silent Partner   Dico Tools
A partner in a business who has no role in management but shares in the liability, tax responsibility, and cash flow.

SIMEX   Dico Tools
See: Singapore International Monetary Exchange

Simple Compound Growth Method   Dico Tools
Calculating a growth rate by relating terminal value to initial value and assuming a constant percentage annual rate of growth between the two values.

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Simple Interest   Dico Tools
Interest credited daily, monthly, quarterly, semiannually, or annually on principal only, not previously credited interest.

Simple IRA   Dico Tools
A salary deduction plan for retirement benefits provided by some small companies with no more than 100 employees.

Simple Linear Regression   Dico Tools
A regression analysis between only two variables, one dependent and the other explanatory.

Simple Linear Trend Model   Dico Tools
An extrapolative statistical model that asserts that earnings have a base level and grow at a constant amount each period.

Simple Moving Average   Dico Tools
The mean, calculated at any time over a past period of fixed length.

Simple Prospect   Dico Tools
An investment opportunity in which only two outcomes are possible.

Simple Rate Of Return   Dico Tools
The return from investments figured by dividing income plus capital gains by the amount of capital invested. The effect of compounding is not taken into account.

Simplified Employee Pension (SEP) Plan   Dico Tools
A pension plan in which both the employee and the employer contribute to an individual retirement account. Also available to the self-employed.

Simulation   Dico Tools
The use of a mathematical model to imitate a situation many times in order to estimate the likelihood of various possible outcomes. See: Monte Carlo simulation.

Singapore International Monetary Exchange   Dico Tools
A leading futures and options exchange in Singapore.

Single Option   Dico Tools
A single put option or call option, as opposed to a spread or straddle, which involves multiple puts and calls.

Single-country Fund   Dico Tools
A mutual fund that invests in individual countries outside the United States.

Single-factor Model   Dico Tools
A model of security returns that acknowledges only one common factor. The single factor is usually the market return. See: Factor model.

Single-index Model   Dico Tools
A model of stock returns that decomposes influences on returns into a systematic factor, as measured by the return on the broad market index, and firm specific factors. Related: Market Model

Single-payment Bond   Dico Tools
A bond that makes only one payment of principal and interest.

Single-Premium Deferred Annuity   Dico Tools
An IRA-like annuity into which an investor makes a lump-sum payment that is invested in either a fixed-return instrument or a variable-return portfolio, which is taxed only when distributions are taken.

Single-premium Life Insurance   Dico Tools
A whole life insurance policy requiring one premium payment, which accrues cash value much more quickly than a policy paid in installments.

Single-state Municipal Bond Fund   Dico Tools
A mutual fund investing only in government obligations within a single state, with state tax-free dividends, but taxed capital gains.

Sinker   Dico Tools
A bond with interest and principal payments coming from the proceeds of a sinking fund.

Sinking Fund   Dico Tools
A fund to which money is added on a regular basis that is used to ensure investor confidence that promised payments will be made and that is used to redeem debt securities or preferred stock issues.

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Sinking Fund Requirement   Dico Tools
A condition included in some corporate bond indentures that requires the issuer to retire a specified portion of debt each year. Any principal due at maturity is called the balloon maturity.

Sit Tight   Dico Tools
Directive from the trader to the customer to be patient, emphasizing that one's piece of business will be executed.

Size   Dico Tools
Refers to the magnitude of an offering, an order, or a trade. Large as in the size of an offering, the size of an order, or the size of a trade. Size is relative from market to market and security to security. "I can buy size at 102-22," means that a trader can buy a significant amount at 102-22. Small is 300,000 shares. Size of the market is actual number of shares represented in one's market, or bid and offering; unless specified, assumed to be at least 500 to 1000 shares, depending on the stock.

Size Out The Book   Dico Tools
Overt action to exclude a public bid or offer from participation in a print through trading a larger size in the book. Can never size out a market order. See: Priority, shut out the book.

Skewed Distribution   Dico Tools
Probability distribution in which an unequal number of observations lie below (negative skew) or above (positive skew) the mean.

Skewness   Dico Tools
Negative skewness means there is a substantial probability of a big negative return. Positive skewness means that there is a greater-than-normal probability of a big positive return.

Skip-day Settlement   Dico Tools
Settling a trade one business day beyond what is normal.

Skip-payment Privilege   Dico Tools
A mortgage contract clause giving borrowers the right to skip payments if they are ahead of schedule.

SLD Last Sale   Dico Tools
Shortened version of "sold last sale," which shows up on the consolidated tape when a large change (one point for lower priced securities and two points for higher-priced securities) occurs between transactions.

Sleeper   Dico Tools
Stock in which there is little investor interest but that has significant potential to gain in price once its attractions are recognized. Antithesis of high flyer.

Sleeping Beauty   Dico Tools
Often used in risk arbitrage. Potential takeover target that has not yet been approached by an acquirer. Such a company usually has particularly attractive features, such as a large amount of cash, or undervalued real estate or other assets.

Slippage   Dico Tools
The difference between estimated transactions costs and actual transactions costs. The difference usually represents revisions to price difference or spread and commission costs.

Slump   Dico Tools
A temporary fall in performance, often describing consistently falling security prices for several weeks or months.

Small Investor   Dico Tools
An individual person investing in small quantities of stock or bonds. This group of investors makes up a minimal fraction of total stock ownership.

Small Issues Exemption   Dico Tools
Securities issues that involve less than $1.5 million are not required to file a registration statement with the SEC. Instead, they are governed by Regulation A, for which only a brief offering statement is needed.

Small Order Execution System   Dico Tools
Three-tiered system of automatic execution of an order at the best price. Size is either 200, 500, or, most often, 1000 shares.

Small-cap   Dico Tools
A stock with a small capitalization, meaning a total equity value of less than $500 million.

Small-firm Effect   Dico Tools
The tendency of small firms (in terms of total market capitalization) to outperform the stock market (consisting of both large and small firms).

Smart Money   Dico Tools
Investors who make consistent profits in the market, regardless of the investing environment, by making wise, educated moves.

SMBS   Dico Tools
See: Stripped mortgage backed securities

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Smidge   Dico Tools
Small amount of price, usually +/- 1/8 or 1/4.

Smithsonian Agreement   Dico Tools
A revision to the Bretton Woods international monetary system that was signed at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C., in December 1971. Included were a new set of par values, widened bands to +/- 2.25% of par, and an increase in the official value of gold to US$38.00 per ounce.

Snowballing   Dico Tools
Used in the context of general equities. Process by which the exercise of stop orders in a declining or advancing market causes further downward or upward pressure on prices, thus triggering more stop orders and more price pressure, and so on.

Social Security Disability Income Insurance   Dico Tools
Program financed by the Social Security tax to provide assistance to disabled individuals with disabilities expected to last at least one year, to compensate for lost income.

Socially Conscious Mutual Fund   Dico Tools
A mutual fund that does not invest in companies that have interests in socially unacceptable markets or produce harmful products or by-products, such as high levels of environmental pollution.

Society For Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecomm   Dico Tools
A dedicated computer network to support funds transfer messages internationally between over 900 member banks world-wide.

SOES   Dico Tools
See: Small Order Execution System

Soft Currency   Dico Tools
A money of a country that is expected to drop in value relative to other currencies.

Soft Dollars   Dico Tools
The value of research services that brokerage houses supply to investment managers "free of charge" in exchange for the investment manager's business commissions.

Soft Landing   Dico Tools
A term describing a growth rate high enough to keep the economy out of recession, but also slow enough to prevent high inflation and interest rates.

Soft Market   Dico Tools
A buyer's market in which supply exceeds demand, causing little trading activity and wide bid-ask spreads.

Soft Spot   Dico Tools
Stocks or groups of stocks that remain weak in a strong market.

Softs   Dico Tools
Tropical commodities such as coffee, sugar, and cocoa.

Sold Away   Dico Tools
Refers to over-the-counter trading. Having sold stock to another dealer before making the present offering.

Sold-out Market   Dico Tools
Unavailability of a futures contract in a particular commodity or maturity date because of contract executions and limited offerings.

Sole Proprietorship   Dico Tools
A business owned by a single individual. A sole proprietor pays no corporate income tax but has unlimited liability for business debts and obligations.

Solvency   Dico Tools
A company's long-run ability to meet all financial obligations.

Sour Bond   Dico Tools
A bond issue that has defaulted on interest or principal payments, and will thus trade at a large discount and a poor credit rating.

Source Of Funds Seller   Dico Tools
Customer seller of stock for the purpose of raising cash for other purchases. Such a seller will sell only at advantageous prices, and not aggressively.

Sources And Applications Of Funds Statement   Dico Tools
See: Statement of cash flows

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South African Futures Exchange   Dico Tools
Electronic futures and options exchange based in South Africa.

Sovereign Risk   Dico Tools
The risk that a central bank will impose foreign exchange regulations that will reduce or negate the value of FX contracts. Also refers to the risk of government default on a loan made to a country or guaranteed by it.

Span   Dico Tools
To cover all contingencies within a specified range.

SPDRs   Dico Tools
SPDRs (Spiders) are designed to track the value of the Standard & Poor's 500 Composite Price Index. Stands for Standard & Poor's Depositary Receipt. They trade on the American Stock Exchange under the symbol SPY. SPDRs are similar to closed-end funds but are formally known as, a unit investment trust. One SPDR unit is valued at approximately one-tenth (1/10) of the value of the S&P 500. Dividends are disbursed quarterly, and are based on the accumulated stock dividends held in trust, less any expenses of the trust. See: Mid-cap SPDR.

Special Arbitrage Account   Dico Tools
A margin account with lower cash requirements, reserved for transactions that are hedged by an offsetting position in futures or options.

Special Assessment Bond   Dico Tools
A municipal bond with interest paid by the taxes of the community benefiting from the bond-funded project.

Special Bid   Dico Tools
A method of purchasing a large block of stock on the NYSE by advertising a client's large buy order, and matching it up with a number of other traders' smaller sell orders.

Special Bond Account   Dico Tools
A special broker margin account used only for transactions in U.S. government bonds, municipals, and eligible listed and unlisted non-convertible corporate bonds.

Special Dividend   Dico Tools
Also referred to as an extra dividend. Dividend that is unlikely to be repeated.

Special Drawing Rights   Dico Tools
A form of international reserve assets, created by the IMF in 1967, whose value is based on a portfolio of widely used currencies.

Special Journal   Dico Tools
A book of original entry for recording similar transactions that occur frequently.

Special Order   Dico Tools
An order that may be priced below the normal price in order to utilize excess capacity and thereby contribute to company profits.

Specialist   Dico Tools
On an exchange, the member firm that is designated as the market maker (or dealer for a listed common stock). Member of a stock exchange who maintains a "fair and orderly market" in one or more securities. Only one specialist can be designated for a given stock, but dealers may be specialists for several stocks. In contrast, there can be multiple market makers in the OTC market. Major functions include executing limit orders on behalf of other exchange members for a portion of the floor broker's commission, and buying or selling for the specialist's own account to counteract temporary imbalances in supply and demand and thus prevent wide swings in stock prices.

Specialist Block Purchase And Sale   Dico Tools
Purchase of a large number of securities by a specialist for himself or to pass on to another floor trader or block buyer.

Specialist Market   Dico Tools
Market in a stock made solely by the specialist, as no public orders, and henceforth no depth, exist in the market.

Specialist Unit   Dico Tools
A specialist who maintains a stable market by acting as a principal and agent for other brokers in one or many stocks.

Specialist's Book   Dico Tools
Chronological record maintained by a specialist that includes the specialist's own inventory of securities, market orders to sell short, and limit orders and stop orders that other stock exchange members have placed with the specialist.

Specialist's Short-sale Ratio   Dico Tools
The percentage of the total short sales of stock sold short by specialists.

Specific Identification   Dico Tools
A method of valuing inventory and determining cost of goods sold whereby the actual costs of specific inventory items are assigned to them.

Specific Issues Market   Dico Tools
The market in which dealers reverse in securities they wish to short.

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Specific Risk   Dico Tools
See: Unique risk

Spectail   Dico Tools
A dealer doing business with retail but concentrating more on acquiring and financing its own speculative positions.

Speculation   Dico Tools
Purchasing risky investments that present the possibility of large profits, but also pose a higher-than-average possibility of loss. A profitable strategy over the long term if undertaken by professionals who hedge their portfolios to control the amount of risk.

Speculative Demand   Dico Tools
The need for cash to take advantage of investment opportunities that may arise.

Speculative Motive   Dico Tools
A desire to hold cash in order to be poised to exploit any attractive investment opportunity requiring a cash expenditure that might arise.

Speculative-grade Bond   Dico Tools
Bond rated BA or lower by Moody's, or BB or lower by S&P, or an unrated bond.

Speculator   Dico Tools
One who attempts to anticipate price changes and, through buying and selling contracts, aims to make profits. A speculator does not use the market in connection with the production, processing, marketing, or handling of a product. See: Trader.

Speed   Dico Tools
Related: Prepayment speed

Spider   Dico Tools
See: SPDRs

Spike   Dico Tools
Order ticket that shows the stock, price, number of shares, type, and account of the order. Origin: Practice of placing the ticket on a metal spike upon execution or cancellation.) Spike is also a sudden, drastic increase in a company's share price.

Spin-off   Dico Tools
A company can create an independent company from an existing part of the company by selling or distributing new shares in the so-called spin-off.

SPINs   Dico Tools
Stands for Standard & Poor's 500 Index Subordinated Notes.

Split   Dico Tools
Sometimes, companies split their outstanding shares into more shares. If a company with 1 million shares executes a two-for-one split, the company would have 2 million shares. An investor with 100 shares before the split would hold 200 shares after the split. The investor's percentage of equity in the company remains the same, and the share price of the stock owned is one-half the price of the stock on the day prior to the split.

Split Commission   Dico Tools
A commission shared between a broker and a financial adviser or other professional who brought the customer to the broker.

Split Offering   Dico Tools
A municipal bond issue that is made up of serial bonds and term maturity bonds.

Split Order   Dico Tools
A large securities transaction that is divided into smaller orders that are spread out over some period of time to avoid large fluctuations in the market price.

Split Print   Dico Tools
Block trade printed at two different prices. Often used in dividend rolls to get an average price equal to the dividend.

Split Rating   Dico Tools
Two different ratings given to the same security by two important rating agencies.

Split Stock   Dico Tools
(1) Purchases or sales shared with others. (2) Division of the outstanding shares of a corporation into a large number of shares. Ordinarily, splits must be proposed by directors and approved by shareholders.

Split-coupon Bond   Dico Tools
A bond that begins as a zero-coupon bond paying no interest and converts to an interest paying bond on a future date.

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Split-fee Option   Dico Tools
An option on an option. The buyer generally executes the split fee with first an initial fee, with a window period at the end of which (upon payment of a second fee) the original terms of the option may be extended to a later predetermined final notification date.

Split-rate Tax System   Dico Tools
A tax system that taxes retained earnings at a higher rate than earnings that are distributed as dividends.

Spoken For   Dico Tools
Amount of opposite demand (placement) or supply (availability) the trader has in efforts to cross the stock. Not open.

Sponsor   Dico Tools
An underwriting investment company that offers shares in its mutual funds, or an influential institution that highly values a particular security and thus creates additional demand for the security.

Spot Commodity   Dico Tools
A commodity that is traded with the expectation of actual delivery, as opposed to a commodity future that is usually not delivered.

Spot Exchange Rates   Dico Tools
Exchange rate on currency for immediate delivery. Related: Forward exchange rate.

Spot Futures Parity Theorem   Dico Tools
Describes the theoretically correct relationship between spot and futures prices. Violation of the parity relationship gives rise to arbitrage opportunities.

Spot Interest Rate   Dico Tools
Interest rate fixed today on a loan that is made today. Related: Forward interest rates.

Spot Lending   Dico Tools
Originating mortgages by processing applications taken directly from prospective borrowers.

Spot Markets   Dico Tools
Related: Cash markets

Spot Month   Dico Tools
The nearest delivery month on a futures contract.

Spot Price   Dico Tools
The current market price of the actual physical commodity. Also called cash price. Current delivery price of a commodity traded in the spot market, in which goods are sold for cash and delivered immediately. Antithesis of futures price.

Spot Rate   Dico Tools
The theoretical yield on a zero-coupon Treasury security.

Spot Rate Curve   Dico Tools
The graphical depiction of the relationship between the spot rates and maturity.

Spot Secondary   Dico Tools
Secondary distribution that may not require an SEC registration statement and may be attempted without delay. An underwriting discount is normally included in these offerings.

Spot Trade   Dico Tools
The purchase and sale of a foreign currency, commodity, or other item for immediate delivery.

Spousal IRA   Dico Tools
An individual retirement account in the name of an unemployed spouse.

Spousal Remainder Trust   Dico Tools
A fixed-term trust from which income is distributed to the beneficiary (such as a child of the grantor) to take advantage of a lower tax bracket, and that at the end of the term passes to the grantor's spouse.

Spread   Dico Tools
(1) The gap between bid and ask prices of a stock or other security. (2) The simultaneous purchase and sale of separate futures or options contracts for the same commodity for delivery in different months. Also known as a straddle. (3) Difference between the price at which an underwriter buys an issue from a firm and the price at which the underwriter sells it to the public. (4) The price an issuer pays above a benchmark fixed-income yield to borrow money.

Spread Income   Dico Tools
Also called margin income, the difference between income and cost. For a depository institution, the difference between the assets it invests in (loans and securities) and the cost of its funds (deposits and other sources).

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Spread Option   Dico Tools
A position consisting of the purchase of one option and the sale of another option on the same underlying security with a different exercise price and/or expiration date.

Spread Order   Dico Tools
An order listing the series of options that the customer wants to buy and sell and the desired spread between the premiums paid and received for the options.

Spread Position   Dico Tools
The status of an account after a spread order has been carried out.

Spread Strategy   Dico Tools
A strategy that involves a position in one or more options so that the cost of buying an option is funded entirely or in part by selling another option in the same underlying. Also called spreading.

Spreadsheet   Dico Tools
A computer program that organizes numerical data into rows and columns in order to calculate and make adjustments based on new data.

Sprinkling Trust   Dico Tools
A trust in which the trustee decides how to distribute trust income among a group of designated people.

SPX   Dico Tools
Applies to derivative products. Symbol for the S&P 500 index.

Squeeze   Dico Tools
Period when stocks or commodities futures increase in price and investors who have sold short must cover their short positions to prevent loss of large amounts of money.

SS1   Dico Tools
Securities sales speaker box that transmits to all investment banks' regional trading and sales desks.

Stabilization   Dico Tools
The action undertakes a country when it buys and sells its own currency to protect its exchange value.Actions registered competitive traders undertake by on the NYSE to meet the exchange requirement that 75% of their traded be stabilizing, meaning that sell orders follow a plus tick and buy orders a minus tick.Actions a managing underwriter undertake so that the market price does not fall below the public offering price during the offering period

Stag   Dico Tools
Speculator who buys and sells stocks to hold for short intervals to make quick profits.

Stagflation   Dico Tools
A period of slow economic growth and high unemployment with rising prices (inflation).

Staggered Board Of Directors   Dico Tools
Occurs when a portion of directors are elected periodically, instead of all at once. Board terms are often staggered in order to thwart unfriendly takeover attempts, since potential acquirers would have to wait longer before they could take control of a company's board through the normal voting procedure.

Staggering Maturities   Dico Tools
Hedging against interest rate movements by investment in short-, medium-, and long-term bonds.

Stagnation   Dico Tools
A period of slow economic growth, or, in securities trading, a period of inactive trading.

Stakeholders   Dico Tools
All parties that have an interest, financial or otherwise, in a firm-stockholders, creditors, bondholders, employees, customers, management, the community, and the government.

Stamp Duty   Dico Tools
Applies mainly to international equities. Taxes on foreign transactions, usually a percentage of total transaction amount, that can be unilateral or bilateral in nature.

Stand Up To   Dico Tools
Make a good-sized market in the trader's own bid and offering prices. Hence, "standing up" to the bid signifies the trader's willingness to buy size (i.e., 50m) volume at the advertised bid, even if the customer buyer/seller falls down.

Stand-alone Principle   Dico Tools
Investment approach that advocates a firm should accept or reject a project by comparing it with securities in the same risk class.

Standard Deduction   Dico Tools
The IRS-specified amount by which a taxpayer is entitled to reduce income an alternative to itemizing deductions.

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Standard Deviation   Dico Tools
The square root of the variance. A measure of dispersion of a set of data from its mean.

Standard Error   Dico Tools
In statistics, a measure of the possible error in an estimate. Plus or minus 2 standard errors usually provides a 95% confidence interval.

Standard Industrial Classification   Dico Tools
A code system that designates a unique business activity classified by industry.

Standard Unqualified Audit Report   Dico Tools
Audit report indicating that all auditing conditions have been met, no significant misstatements have been discovered and remain uncorrected, and the auditors feel the financial statements are fairly stated in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles.

Standardized Normal Distribution   Dico Tools
A normal distribution with a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1.

Standardized Value   Dico Tools
Also called the normal deviate, the distance of one data point from the mean, divided by the standard deviation of the distribution.

Standby Agreement   Dico Tools
In a rights issue, agreement that the underwriter will purchase any stock not purchased by investors.

Standby Commitment   Dico Tools
An agreement between a corporation and investment firm that the firm will purchase whatever part of a stock issue that is offered in a rights offering that is not subscribed to in the two- to four- week standby period.

Standby Fee   Dico Tools
Amount paid to an underwriter who agrees to purchase any stock that is not purchased by public investors in a rights offering.

Standing   Dico Tools
Level of priority in the trading crowd.

Standstill Agreement   Dico Tools
Contract by which the bidding firm in a takeover attempt agrees to limit its holdings of another firm.

Start-up   Dico Tools
The earliest stage of a new business venture.

State Bank   Dico Tools
A bank authorized in a specific state by a state-based charter, with generally the same functions as a national bank.

Stated Annual Interest Rate   Dico Tools
The interest rate expressed as a per year percentage, by which interest payments are determined. See: Annual percentage rate.

Stated Conversion Price   Dico Tools
At the time of issuance of a convertible security, the price the issuer effectively grants the securityholder to purchase the common stock, equal to the par value of the convertible security divided by the conversion ratio.

Stated Maturity   Dico Tools
For the CMO tranche, the date the last payment would occur at zero CPR.

Stated Rate Of Interest   Dico Tools
The rate of interest printed on the bond.

Stated Value   Dico Tools
A nominal value assigned to no-par stock by the board of directors of a corporation.

Statement Billing   Dico Tools
Billing method in which the sales for a period such as a month (for which a customer also receives invoices) are collected into a single statement, and the customer must pay all the invoices represented on the statement.

Statement Of Cash Flows   Dico Tools
The financial statement that shows an entity's cash inflows (receipts) and outflows (payments) during a period of time.

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Statement Of Condition   Dico Tools
A document describing the status of assets, liabilities, and equity of a person or business at a particular time.

Statement Of Earnings   Dico Tools
statement of earnings (income statement): The financial statement that summarizes the revenues generated and the expenses incurred by an entity during a period of time.

Statement Of Financial Accounting Standards No. 52   Dico Tools
The currency translation standard currently used by U.S. firms. It mandates the use of the current rate method. See: Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 8.

Statement Of Financial Accounting Standards No. 8   Dico Tools
The is a currency translation standard once used by U.S. accounting firms. See: Statement of Accounting Standards No. 52.

Statement Of Retained Earnings   Dico Tools
A report that shows the changes in the Retained Earnings account during a period of time.

Statement-of-Cash-Flows Method   Dico Tools
A method of cash budgeting that is organized along the lines of the statement of cash flows.

Static Theory Of Capital Structure   Dico Tools
Theory that the firm's capital structure is determined by a trade-off of the value of tax shields against the costs of bankruptcy.

Statistical Tracking Error   Dico Tools
Used in the context of general equities. Standard deviation of the difference between the portfolio return and the desired investment benchmark return.

Statutory Investment   Dico Tools
An investment that a trustee is authorized to make under state law.

Statutory Merger   Dico Tools
A merger in which one corporation remains as a legal entity, instead of a new legal entity being formed.

Statutory Surplus   Dico Tools
The surplus of an insurance company determined by the accounting treatment of both assets and liabilities as established by state statutes.

Statutory Voting   Dico Tools
The standard rule in most corporations that there is one vote per share in elections of the board of directors.

Staying Power   Dico Tools
The ability of an investor to stay in the market and not to sell out of a position when an investment has fallen in value.

Steady State   Dico Tools
As an MBS pool ages, or four to six months after component mortgages have passed at least once the threshold for refinancing, the prepayment speed tends to stabilize within a fairly steady range.

Steenth   Dico Tools
1/16 (0.0625) of one full point in price. Often used in negotiations to compromise an eighth difference, and in options trading. See: Teenyo.

Steepening Of The Yield Curve   Dico Tools
A change in the yield curve where the spread between the yield on a long-term and short-term Treasury has increased. Compare flattening of the yield curve and butterfly shift.

Step Aside   Dico Tools
Allow a block to trade at a price at which you do not care to participate in the trade.

Step Up   Dico Tools
To increase, as in step up the tax basis of an asset.

Step-down Note   Dico Tools
A floating-rate note whose interest rate declines after a specified period of time.

Step-up Bond   Dico Tools
A bond that pays a lower coupon rate for an initial period, and then increases to a higher coupon rate. Related: Deferred-interest bond, payment-in-kind bond.

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Sterilized Intervention   Dico Tools
Foreign exchange market activity by which monetary authorities insulate their domestic money supplies from the foreign exchange transactions with offsetting sales or purchases of domestic assets.

Sticky Deal   Dico Tools
A new securities issue that may be difficult to sell because of problems in the market or underlying problems with the corporation.

Stochastic Models   Dico Tools
Liability-matching models that assume that the liability payments and the asset cash flows are uncertain. Related: Deterministic models.

Stochastics Index   Dico Tools
A computerized tool measuring overbought and oversold conditions in a stock over a certain period.

Stock   Dico Tools
Ownership of a corporation indicated by shares, which represent a piece of the corporation's assets and earnings.

Stock Ahead   Dico Tools
When two or more orders for a stock at a certain price arrive about the same time, and the exchange's priority rules take effect. NYSE rules stipulate that the bid made first should be executed first, or, if two bids come in at once, the bid for the larger number of shares receives priority. The bid that is not executed is then turned to the broker, who informs the customer that the trade was not completed because there was "stock ahead." See: Ahead.

Stock Bonus Plan   Dico Tools
A plan used as an incentive that rewards employee performance with stock in the company.

Stock Buyback   Dico Tools
A corporation's purchase of its own outstanding stock, usually in order to raise the company's earnings per share.

Stock Certificate   Dico Tools
A document issued by a corporation to stockholders evidencing ownership in the corporation.

Stock Dividend   Dico Tools
 A pro rata distribution of additional shares of stock to shareholders.

Stock Exchange Automated Quotation System   Dico Tools
London's Nasdaq system.

Stock Exchange Of Hong Kong   Dico Tools
Only stock exchange located in Hong Kong.

Stock Exchange Of Singapore   Dico Tools
The only stock exchange in Singapore.

Stock Exchange Of Thailand   Dico Tools
The only stock exchange in Thailand.

Stock Exchange, Mumbai   Dico Tools
Formerly the Bombay stock exchange, the BSE accounts for more than one-third of Indian trading volume.

Stock Exchanges   Dico Tools
Formal organizations, approved and regulated by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), that are made up of members who use the facilities to exchange certain common stocks. The two major national stock exchanges are the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) and the American Stock Exchange (ASE or AMEX). Five regional stock exchanges include the Midwest, Pacific, Philadelphia, Boston, and Cincinnati. The Arizona Stock Exchange is an after-hours electronic marketplace where anonymous participants trade stocks via personal computers.

Stock Index   Dico Tools
Index like the Dow Jones Industrial Average that tracks a portfolio of stocks.

Stock Index Future   Dico Tools
A security that uses composite stock indexes to allow investors to speculate on the performance of the entire market, or to hedge against losses in long or short positions. The settlement of the contracts is in cash.

Stock Index Option   Dico Tools
An option in which the underlying is a common stock index.

Stock Insurance Company   Dico Tools
An insurance company owned by a group of stockholders, who are not necessarily policyholders.

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Stock Jockey   Dico Tools
A stock broker who frequently buys and sells shares in a client's portfolios.

Stock List   Dico Tools
The department within a stock exchange that oversees compliance with listing requirements and exchange regulations.

Stock Market   Dico Tools
Also called the equity market, the market for trading equities.

Stock Option   Dico Tools
An option whose underlying asset is the common stock of a corporation.

Stock Power   Dico Tools
A power of attorney form giving ownership of a security to another person, brokerage firm, bank, or lender after it has been sold or pledged to that party.

Stock Purchase Plan   Dico Tools
A plan allowing employees of a company to purchase shares of the company, often at a discount or with matching employer funds.

Stock Rating   Dico Tools
An evaluation by a rating agency of the expected financial performance or inherent risk of common stocks.

Stock Record   Dico Tools
The accounting a brokerage firm keeps of all securities held in inventory.

Stock Replacement Strategy   Dico Tools
A strategy for enhancing a portfolio's return, used when the futures contract is expensive according to its theoretical price. The strategy involves a swap between the futures and a Treasury bill and stock portfolio.

Stock Repurchase   Dico Tools
A firm's repurchase of outstanding shares of its common stock.

Stock Right   Dico Tools
Another terminology for a stock option.

Stock Selection   Dico Tools
An active portfolio management technique that focuses on advantageous selection of particular stock rather than on broad asset allocation choices.

Stock Split   Dico Tools
Occurs when a firm issues new shares of stock and in turn lowers the current market price of its stock to a level that is proportionate to pre-split prices. For example, if IBM trades at $100 before a two-for-one split, after the split it will trade at $50, and holders of the stock will have twice as many shares as they had before the split. See: Split.

Stock Ticker   Dico Tools
A letter designation assigned to securities and mutual funds that trade on U.S. financial exchanges.

Stock Watcher   Dico Tools
A computerized service that monitors and investigates trading activity on the NYSE in order to identify any unusual activity or security movement that might be caused by rumors or illegal activities.

Stockbroker   Dico Tools
See: Registered representative

Stockholder   Dico Tools
See: Shareholder.

Stockholder Books   Dico Tools
Set of books kept by firm management for its annual report that follows Financial Accounting Standards Board rules. The tax books follow IRS tax rules.

Stockholder Equity   Dico Tools
Balance sheet item that includes the book value of ownership in the corporation. It includes capital stock, paid-in surplus, and retained earnings.

Stockholder Of Record   Dico Tools
Stockholder whose name is registered on the books of a corporation and thus will receive dividends from the corporation.

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Stockholder's Equity   Dico Tools
The residual claims that stockholders have against a firm's assets, calculated by subtracting all current liabilities and debt liabilities from total assets.

Stockholder's Report   Dico Tools
The annual report and other reports given to stockholders to inform them of the company's financial standing and developments.

Stockholders   Dico Tools
stockholders (shareholders): Individuals or organizations that own a portion (shares of stock) of a corporation.

Stockholm Stock Exchange   Dico Tools
The only official equity trading market in Sweden.

Stockout   Dico Tools
Running out of inventory.

Stop Basis   Dico Tools
Refers to over-the-counter trading. Method of entering an OTC trade into the trader's position without reporting the trade on the OTC tape.

Stop Order   Dico Tools
An order to buy or sell at the market when a definite price is reached, either above (on a buy) or below (on a sell) the price that prevailed when the order was given.

Stop Payment   Dico Tools
An order given a depository institution not to pay out cash for a check; often used when the check has been stolen or lost.

Stop-limit Order   Dico Tools
A stop order that designates a price limit. Unlike the stop order, which becomes a market order once the stop is reached, the stop-limit order becomes a limit order.

Stop-loss Order   Dico Tools
An order to sell a stock when the price falls to a specified level.

Stop-out Price   Dico Tools
The lowest auction price at which Treasury bills are sold.

Stopped   Dico Tools
Guaranteed a specific price on the customer's working order while the dealer tries to obtain a better one. Stopped against one's self involves a customer order and a firm's own account, not two customers. One can cancel an order even after being stopped by another party.

Stopped Out   Dico Tools
A purchase or sale that is executed under a stop order at the stop price specified by the customer.

Stopping Curve   Dico Tools
A curve showing the refunding rates for different times at which the expected value of refunding immediately equals the expected value of waiting to refund.

Stopping Curve Refunding Rate   Dico Tools
A refunding rate that falls on the stopping curve.

Story Stock/bond   Dico Tools
A highly complex security that requires a long "story" so that investors may understand the corporation and be persuaded of its merits.

Straddle   Dico Tools
Purchase or sale of an equal number of puts and calls with the same terms at the same time. Related: Spread.

Straight   Dico Tools
Direct telephone line, compared to an outside line that requires a telephone number to be dialed.

Straight Term Insurance Policy   Dico Tools
Term life insurance policy providing a fixed-amount death benefit over a certain number of years.

Straight Value   Dico Tools
Also called investment value, the value of a convertible security without the conversion option.

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Straight Voting   Dico Tools
Allows shareholder to cast all of the shareholder's votes for each candidate for the board of directors.

Straight-line Depreciation   Dico Tools
Amortizing or apportioning an equal dollar amount of depreciation in each accounting period.

Strangle   Dico Tools
Buying or selling an out-of-the-money put option and call option on the same underlying instrument, with the same expiration. Profits are made only if there is a drastic change in the underlying instrument's price.

Strategic Buyout   Dico Tools
Acquisition of another firm in order to realize some operational benefits which will result in increased earnings.

Stratified Equity Indexing   Dico Tools
A method of constructing a replicating portfolio that classifies the stocks in the index into strata, and represents each stratum in the portfolio.

Stratified Sampling Approach To Indexing   Dico Tools
Dividing an index into cells, each representing a different characteristic of the index, such as duration or maturity.

Stratified Sampling Bond Indexing   Dico Tools
A method of bond indexing that divides the index into cells, each cell representing a different characteristic, and that buys bonds to match those characteristics.

Stray   Dico Tools
(1) Not a member of the participating party in the trade at hand; (2) not a meaningful indication of a customer's desire to take a sizable position or be involved in a stock.

Street   Dico Tools
Means Wall Street financial community; brokers, dealers, underwriters, and other knowledgeable participants.

Street Name   Dico Tools
Registration under which securities maybe held by a broker on behalf of a client but be registered in the name of the Wall Street firm.

Strike Index   Dico Tools
For a stock index option, the index value at which the buyer of the option can buy or sell the underlying stock index. The strike index is converted to a dollar value by multiplying by the option's contract multiple. Related: Strike price.

Strike Price   Dico Tools
The stated price per share for which underlying stock may be purchased (in the case of a call) or sold (in the case of a put) by the option holder upon exercise of the option contract.

Strip   Dico Tools
Variant of a straddle. A strip is two puts and one call on a stock. A strap is two calls and one put on a stock. The puts and calls have the same strike price and expiration date. See: Strap.

Strip Mortgage Participation Certificate (strip PC   Dico Tools
Ownership interests in specified mortgages purchased by Freddie Mac from a single seller in exchange for separate instruments representing interests in the same mortgages.

Stripped Bond   Dico Tools
Bond that can be subdivided into a series of zero-coupon bonds.

Stripped Mortgage-backed Securities   Dico Tools
Securities that redistribute the cash flows from the underlying generic MBS collateral into the principal and interest components of the MBS to enhance their attaractiveness to different groups of investors.

Stripped Yield   Dico Tools
Applies mainly to convertible securities. Return on the debt portion of a bond/warrant unit after subtracting the value of the issued warrant segment.

Strong Dollar   Dico Tools
When the dollar can be exchanged for a large amount of foreign currency, benefiting travelers but hurting exporters.

Strong-form Efficiency   Dico Tools
A form of pricing efficiency, that posits that the price of a security reflects all information, whether or not it is publicly available. Related: Weak-form efficiency, semi-strong form efficiency.

Structured Arbitrage Transaction   Dico Tools
A self-funding, self-hedged series of transactions that usually use mortgage-backed securities (MBS) as the primary assets.

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Structured Debt   Dico Tools
Debt that has been customized for the buyer, often by incorporating unusual options.

Structured Note   Dico Tools
A derivative investment that will change in value with movements of an underlying index; or a note whose issuer makes swap arrangements to alter its required cash flows.

Structured Portfolio Strategy   Dico Tools
Desigining a portfolio to achieve a level of performance that matches some predetermined liabilities that must be paid out in the future.

Structured Settlement   Dico Tools
An agreement in settlement of a lawsuit involving specific payments made over a period of time. Property and casualty insurance companies often buy life insurance products to pay the costs of such settlements.

Stub   Dico Tools
Often used in risk arbitrage. Piece of equity security left over from a major cash or security distribution from a recapitalization.

Student Loan Marketing Association   Dico Tools
A publicly traded corporation established by federal action that increases availability of educational loans by guaranteeing student loans traded in the secondary market. Also known as Sallie Mae.

Subchapter M   Dico Tools
An IRS regulation dealing with investment companies and real estate investment trusts that avoid double taxation by distributing interest, dividends, and capital gains directly to shareholders, who are taxed individually.

Subchapter S   Dico Tools
IRS regulation that gives a corporation with 35 or fewer shareholders the option of being taxed as a partnership to escape corporate income taxes.

Subject   Dico Tools
Refers to a bid or offer that cannot be executed without confirmation from the customer. In other words, not firm, but a bid/offer that needs additional information/confirmation before becoming firm and is therefore still negotiable.

Subject Market   Dico Tools
Quote in which prices are subject to confirmation. See: Fast market.

Subject To A (NY) Can   Dico Tools
Contingent upon trader's ability to cancel an order (on the indicated exchange).

Subject To A Print/execution/trading   Dico Tools
Contingent on execution of a trade because the picture in the stock has not been materially altered.

Subject To Opinion   Dico Tools
An auditor's opinion reflecting acceptance of a company's financial statements subject to pervasive uncertainty that cannot be adequately measured, such as information relating to the value of inventories, reserves for losses, or other matters open to judgment.

Subjective Probabilities   Dico Tools
Probabilities that are determined subjectively (for example, on the basis of judgment rather than statistical sampling).

Subordinated Debenture Bond   Dico Tools
An unsecured bond that ranks after secured debt, after debenture bonds, and often after some general creditors in its claim on assets and earnings. Related: Debenture bond, mortgage bond, collateral trust bonds.

Subordinated Debt   Dico Tools
Debt over which senior debt takes priority. In the event of bankruptcy, subordinated debtholders receive payment only after senior debt claims are paid in full.

Subordination Clause   Dico Tools
A provision in a bond indenture that restricts the issuer's future borrowing by subordinating future lenders' claims on the firm to those of the existing bondholders.

Subpart F   Dico Tools
Special category of foreign-source "unearned" income that is currently taxed by the IRS whether or not it is remitted to the U.S.

Subperiod Return   Dico Tools
The return of a portfolio over a shorter period of time than the evaluation period.

Subrogation   Dico Tools
An insurance process whereby a company that has paid out to a policyholder for a loss incurred recovers the amount of the loss from the party that is legally liable.

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Subscription   Dico Tools
Agreement to buy new issue of securities.

Subscription Agreement   Dico Tools
An application reviewed by the general partner to join a limited partnership.

Subscription Price   Dico Tools
Price that current shareholders pay for a share of stock in a rights offering.

Subscription Privilege   Dico Tools
The right of current shareholders of a corporation to buy newly issued shares before they are available to the public.

Subscription Right   Dico Tools
See: Subscription privilege

Subscription Warrant   Dico Tools
Applies to derivative products. Type of security, usually issued with another security, such as a bond or stock, that entitles the holder to buy a proportionate amount of common stock at a specified price, usually higher than the market price at the time of issuance. Warrant.

Subsidiary   Dico Tools
A wholly or partially owned company that is part of a large corporation. A foreign subsidiary is a separately incorporated entity under the host country's law.

Subsidiary Company   Dico Tools
A company owned or controlled by another company, known as the parent company.

Subsidiary Ledger   Dico Tools
A grouping of individual accounts that in total equal the balance of a control account in the General Ledger.

Substitute Sale   Dico Tools
A method for hedging price risk that uses debt market instruments, such as interest rate futures, or that involves selling borrowed securities as the primary assets.

Substitution Swap   Dico Tools
A swap in which a money manager exchanges one bond for another bond that is similar in terms of coupon, maturity, and credit quality, but that offers a higher yield.

Suicide Pill   Dico Tools
A hostile takeover prevention tactic that could destroy the target company. Taking on a large amount of debt to prevent the takeover might cause bankruptcy, for example.

Suitability Rules   Dico Tools
Policies and guidelines that brokers must use to ensure that investors have the financial means to assume risks that they wish to undertake. These are enforced by the NASD and other self-regulatory organizations.

Sum-of-the-years'-digits Depreciation   Dico Tools
Method of accelerated depreciation.

Sunk Costs   Dico Tools
Costs that have been incurred and cannot be reversed.

Sunrise Industries   Dico Tools
Growth industries in an economy that may become leaders in the market in the future.

Super Bowl Indicator   Dico Tools
A theory that if a team from the old American Football League pre-1970 wins the Super Bowl, the stock market will decline during the coming year. If a team from the old pre-1990 National Football League wins the Super Bowl, stock prices will increase in the coming year.

Super DOT   Dico Tools
Super DOT provides faster execution than regular DOT and focuses on large-size trades and baskets. See: Program trading.

Super Message   Dico Tools
See: Autex

Super Sinker Bond   Dico Tools
Usually a home financing bond, but also any other bond that has long-term coupons but short maturity; the mortgages may be prepaid, and the holders may receive the long-term yield after a short period of time.

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Supermajority   Dico Tools
Provision in a company's charter requiring a majority of, say, 80% of shareholders to approve certain changes, such as a merger.

Supermajority Amendment   Dico Tools
Often used in risk arbitrage. Corporate amendment requiring that a substantial majority (usually 67% to 90%) of stockholders approve important transactions, such as mergers.

Supervisory Analyst   Dico Tools
An analyst who is qualified to approve publicly distributed research reports on the NYSE.

Supplemental Security Income   Dico Tools
A Social Security program established to help the blind, disabled, and poor.

Supplies   Dico Tools
Materials used in a business that do not generally become part of the sales product and were not purchased to be resold to customers.

Supply Shock   Dico Tools
An event that influences production capacity and costs in an economy.

Supply-side Economics   Dico Tools
A theory of economics that reductions in tax rates will stimulate investment and in turn will benefit the entire society.

Support Level   Dico Tools
A price level below which it is supposedly difficult for a security or market to fall. That is, the price level at which a security tends to stop falling because there is more demand than supply; can be identified on a technical basis by seeing where the stock has bottomed out in the past.

Surcharge   Dico Tools
An additional levy added to some charge.

Surety   Dico Tools
An individual or corporation that guarantees the performance or actions of another.

Surplus Funds   Dico Tools
Cash flow available after payment of taxes in a project.

Surplus Management   Dico Tools
Related: Asset management

Surtax   Dico Tools
A tax added to the normal tax paid by corporations or individuals who have earned income above a certain level.

Surveillance Department Of Exchanges   Dico Tools
A department that monitors trading activity on an exchange in order to identify any unusual activity that may indicate illegal practices.

Sushi Bond   Dico Tools
A Eurobond issued by a Japanese corporation.

Suspended Trading   Dico Tools
Temporary halt in trading in a particular security, in advance of a major news announcement or to correct an imbalance of orders to buy and sell.

Suspense Account   Dico Tools
An account used temporarily to record receipts and disbursements that have yet to be classified.

Sustainable Growth Rate   Dico Tools
Maximum rate of growth a firm can sustain without increasing financial leverage.

Swap   Dico Tools
An arrangement in which two entities lend to each other on different terms, e.g., in different currencies, and/or at different interest rates, fixed or floating.

Swap Assignment   Dico Tools
Related: Swap sale

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Swap Buy Back   Dico Tools
The sale of an interest rate swap by one counterparty to the other, effectively ending the swap.

Swap Fund   Dico Tools
See: Exchange fund

Swap Option   Dico Tools
See: Swaption. Related: Quality option.

Swap Rate   Dico Tools
The difference between spot and forward rates expressed in points, e.g., $0.0001 per pound sterling.

Swap Reversal   Dico Tools
An interest rate swap designed to end a counterparty's role in another interest rate swap, accomplished by counterbalancing the original swap in maturity, reference rate, and notional amount.

Swap Sale   Dico Tools
Also called a swap assignment, a transaction that ends one counterparty's role in an interest rate swap by substituting a new counterparty whose credit is acceptable to the other original counterparty.

Swaption   Dico Tools
Options on interest rate swaps. The buyer of a swaption has the right to enter into an interest rate swap agreement by some specified date in the future. The swaption agreement will specify whether the buyer of the swaption will be a fixed-rate receiver or a fixed-rate payer. The writer of the swaption becomes the counterparty to the swap if the buyer exercises.

Sweat Equity   Dico Tools
An increase in equity created by the labor of the owner.

Sweep Account   Dico Tools
Account providing that a bank invest all the excess available funds at the close of each business day for the firm.

Sweetener   Dico Tools
A feature of a security that makes it more attractive to potential purchasers.

SWIFT   Dico Tools
See: Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications

Swingline Facility   Dico Tools
Bank borrowing facility to provide finance while the firm replaces U.S. commercial paper with eurocommercial paper.

Swiss Electronic Bourse   Dico Tools
Computer linking system between the former stock exchange trading floors in Zurich, Geneva, and Basel, Switzerland so that trades can be carried out among traders on all three of the trading floors.

Swiss Options And Financial Futures Exchange   Dico Tools
The Swiss derivatives market with the first fully electronic trading system in the world, now called Eurex Zurich AG.

Swissy   Dico Tools
Slang for the Swiss franc.

Switch Order   Dico Tools
Order for the purchase (sale) of one stock and the sale (purchase) of another stock at a stipulated price difference. Contingent order, swap.

Switching   Dico Tools
Liquidating a position and simultaneously reinstating a position in another futures contract of the same type.

SYD   Dico Tools
sum-of-the-years'-digits (SYD) depreciation method: The accelerated depreciation method in which a constant balance (cost minus salvage value) is multiplied by a declining depreciation rate.

Sydney Futures Exchange   Dico Tools
The derivatives market of Australia.

Symbol   Dico Tools
Letters used to identify companies on the consolidated tape and other locations.

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Symbol Book Special   Dico Tools
Illiquid, inactively traded stock not familiar market

Symmetric Cash Matching   Dico Tools
An extension of cash flow matching that allows for the short-term borrowing of funds to satisfy a liability prior to the liability due date, reducing the cost of funding liabilities.

Synchronous Data   Dico Tools
Information available at the same time. To test option-pricing models, the price of the option and of the underlying should be synchronous and reflect the same moment in the market.

Syndicate   Dico Tools
A group of banks that acts jointly, on a temporary basis, to loan money in a bank credit (syndicated credit) or to underwrite a new issue of bonds.

Syndicate Manager   Dico Tools
See: Managing underwriter

Synergistic Effect   Dico Tools
A violation of value-additivity in that the value of a combination is greater than the sum of the individual values.

Synthetic Convertible   Dico Tools
Combination of usable bonds and warrants (that expire on or after the bonds' maturity) that resembles convertible bond.

Synthetics   Dico Tools
Customized hybrid instruments created by blending an underlying price on a cash instrument with the price of a derivative instrument. It is a combination of security holdings that mimics the price movement of another single security (i.e., synthetic call: long position in a stock combined with a put on that position; a protected long sale; synthetic put: short position in a stock combined with a call on that position; a protected short sale).

Systematic   Dico Tools
Common to all businesses.

Systematic Investment Plan   Dico Tools
An approach involving regular investments in order to take advantage of dollar-cost averaging.

Systematic Risk   Dico Tools
Also called undiversifiable risk or market risk.

Systematic Risk Principle   Dico Tools
Only the systematic portion of risk matters in large, well-diversified portfolios. Thus, expected returns must be related only to systematic risks.

Systematic Withdrawal Plan   Dico Tools
A provision of certain mutual funds to pay out to the shareholder specified amounts after specified periods of time.

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